Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Therapeutics: periodontal disease

Contributor(s): Lauren Trepanier

Antibiotics

  • Antibiotic therapy is useful as an adjunct to:
    • Periodontal surgery.
    • Oral surgery.
    • Endodontic therapy.
  • Only locally administered sustained release antibiotic marketed for veterinary use to date is DoxirobeTM (Pfizer Co).
  • Systemic antibiotics are indicated in cases of severe periodontal disease (stages 3 and 4). In stage 4 periodontal disease, give antibiotics two weeks before professional teeth cleaning and at least one week after, but most clients request immediate teeth cleaning and extractions if indicated.
  • Antibiotics also indicated in most cases of oral surgery.

Antibiotics most commonly used in stage 3 and stage 4 periodontal disease (effective against mixed oral flora):

  • Amoxicillin Amoxicillin : 10 mg/kg q12h.
  • Amoxicillin-Clavulanate Clavulanate : 12.5 mg/kg q12h (approved for use in US).
  • Clindamycin Clindamycin : 5.5 mg/kg q12h or 11 mg/kg q24h. Decreases/prevents production of glycocalyx (approved for use in US).
  • Doxycycline Doxycycline : 10 mg/kg q24h.
  • Metronidazole Metronidazole : 15-20 mg /kg q12h. Good efficacy against most anaerobes. Poor efficacy against some anaerobic gram positive cocci and non-spore forming gram positive bacilli.
  • Metronidazole-Spiramycin: 12.5 -16 mg/kg (metronidazole) + 75,000 -100,000 UI /kg (spiramycin).

Antibiotic prophylaxis

  • Used for animals at risk of developing systemic disease subsequent to bacteremia:
    • Immunocompromised organic or metabolic failure.
    • Heart disease.
    • Animals with orthopedic implants.
  • Use an injectable antibiotic, ie amoxicillin Amoxicillin or ampicillin Ampicillin at a dose of 20-25 mg/kg IV or IM 30 minutes before procedure, then 10-12.5 mg/kg IV or IM four hours after initial dose.
  • Alternately, give patient oral antibiotics for several days before professional cleaning visit if they fit antibiotic prophylaxis criteria.

Plaque retardants

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Chew toys and dental devices

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Root canal medication

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Anesthesia and analgesia

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Immunomodulation

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Bellows J (1999) The Practice of Veterinary Dentistry. Iowa State University Press.


ADDED