Canis ISSN: 2398-2942
Contributor(s): Maggie Fisher, Carl Jones, David Scarff, Lauren Trepanier
- Toxocara canis Toxocara canis : benzimidazoles more effective than piperazine Piperazine against larval stages therefore prevent fecal output for longer period; pregnant/nursing bitches need daily treatment with fenbendazole Fenbendazole to prevent larval migration across placenta and into milk.
- Toxascaris Toxascaris leonina , Uncinaria Uncinaria stenocephala , Ancylostoma caninum Ancylostoma caninum and Trichuris Trichuris vulpis : treat adults every few months; monthly from late pregnancy until weaning. Pups should be treated at age 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 6 months, or if transmission very likely, age 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks, 6 months.
- Angiostrongylus Angiostrongylus vasorum usually responds to levamisole Levamisole , but fenbendazole Fenbendazole may be safer though less effective; Oslerus( Filaroides) Oslerus osleri infection needs repeated treatment with albendazole* Albendazole or fenbendazole Fenbendazole.
- Heartworm: Dirofiliaria immitis Canine cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis treat with melarsomine* Melarsomine for prophylaxis use monthly ivermectin Ivermectin ,selamectin Selamectin ,moxidectin Moxidectin (unlicensed use in dogs) or milbemycin oxime Milbemycin oxime.
- Nasal worms: Eucoleus (Capillaria) Boehmi treat with ivermectin.
Drugs for nematodesAvermectins and milbemycins
- Ivermectin* Ivermectin - used to control migrating heartworm larvae.
Approved in US only as a preventative for heartworm.Toxicity Ivermectin toxicity in Collies/Collie-x; seen at the higher doses used to treat ectoparasites, not at heartworm preventative dosees (dose difference - 6 ug/kg for heartworm; 200 ug/kg to treat ectoparasites).
- Natural or semi-natural macrocyclic lactone fermentation products of Streptomycesspp that induce neuromuscular paralysis in susceptible parasites by binding to and opening glutamate-gated chloride channels (glutamate agonists).
- Effective against wide range of nematodes.
- Also termed endectocides because also active against many ectoparasites.
- Kill existing population of parasites and prevent re-infection for a period of time.
- Selamectin: prevention of heartworm disease caused by D. immitis.
- Milbemycin oxime Milbemycin oxime.
- Disrupt parasite energy metabolism by binding to tubulin (required for uptake of nutrients).
- Doses may need to be repeated in dogs.
- Effective against larval and adult roundworms, some also ovicidal.
- Products containing benzimidazoles or probenzimidazoles are labelled 1-BZ.
- Albendazole Albendazole : lungworm - Oslerus (formerly known as Filaroides) Oslerus (Filaroides) osleri.
Teratogenic in early pregnancy.
- Fenbendazole Fenbendazole : for pregnant and lactating bitches to prevent roundworm in puppies, also for hookworms, whipworms, lungworm and tapeworm ( Taenia Taenia pisiformis - not licensed for Echinococcus or Dipylidium). Needs daily treatment from day 40 of pregnancy through to 2 days post-partum to achieve this.
- Mebendazole Mebendazole : gastrointestinal roundworms, Echinococcus Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia Taenia pisiformis. Need to treat longer if treating tapeworms.
- Praziquantel Praziquantel : preferred treatment for Echinococcus Echinococcus granulosus.
- Febantel Febantel.
- Nicotinic receptor agonists interfere with parasite nerve transmission → muscular paralysis and expulsion.
- Restores depressed T-cell function.
Low therapeutic index - toxic signs include salivation and muscle tremors.
- Levamisole hydrochloride* Levamisole : lungworms ( Angiostrongylus Angiostrongylus vasorum ), immune stimulation, heartworm treatment (seek specialist advice).
- Dichlorvos Dichlorvos : roundworms, hookworms. Not recommended. Safer drugs are available.
- Interfere with parasite nerve transmission → neuromuscular paralysis.
- Effective against adults and larval gastrointestinal roundworms and hookworms.
- Pyrantel embonate Pyrantel embonate , pyrantel pamoate, pyrantel tartrate: (not licensed for use in cats).
- Nitroscanate Nitroscanate : roundworms and tapeworms (at recommended dose it gives only limited control of echinococcus).
- Piperazine Piperazine : modifies neurotransmission → relaxation and expulsion; for some roundworms, ie Toxocara, Toxascaris Toxocara canis and Uncinaria; little activity against larval Toxocarain puppies; ineffective against lungworms or tapeworms.
- Diethylcarbamazine: piperazine derivative that acts in nicotine-like manner causing paralysis. Used for heartworm prophylaxis and has ascaricide activity. Has been used to treat Spirocerea lupiat very high doses.
- All tapeworms have an indirect lifecycle and control measures should, where possible, include control of intermediate hosts, eg Dipylidium - flea control.
- Dipylidium Dipylidium caninum , Echinococcus Echinococcus granulosus (zoonotic), Taenia Taenia multiceps Diphyllobothrium latum and Spirometra mausonoides affect dogs.
Drugs for tapeworms
Some benzimidazoles have activity against tapeworms; nitroscanate Nitroscanate is also effective.
- Dichlorophen Dichlorophen : effective against Dipylidium and Taenia.
- Praziquantel Praziquantel : tapeworms (drug of choice for Echinococcus). Mechanism of action; impairs integument function enhancing permeability to glucose leading to nutrient loss.
- Epsiprantel: same spectrum of activity and treatment efficacy as praziquantel.
- Fenbendazole Fenbendazole : effective against Taenia spp.
- For multiple parasitism → broad spectrum roundworm and tapeworm control, eg febantel and praziquantel.
- Nanophyetus salmincola acquired by consumption of raw trout or salmon in North West US.
- Paragonimus kellicotti acquired by consumption of raw crayfish or freshwater crab.
- Drugs for Trematodes:
- P. kellicotti - praziquantel 23 mg/kg TID for 3 d (Bowman et al,1991), fenbendazole 50 mg/kg for 10-14 d (Dubey et al,1979), albendazole 25 mg/kg BID for 14 d.
- N. salmincola - praziquantel 7-38 mg SQ or IM (Foreyt & Gorham, 1988).
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