Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Therapeutics: anesthesia/analgesia

Contributor(s): Kyle Braund, Lauren Trepanier, Jo Murrell

Introduction

  • This section will in the main cover the pharmacological effects of sedatives, general anesthetics, opioid analgesics, local anesthetics and euthanasia solutions.
  • General anesthesia can be considered a continuum from sedation to a deep plane of general anesthesia. A deeper plane of unconsciousness is generally associated with greater cardiovascular and respiratory system depression compared to light levels of sedation; therefore greater physiological support of these animals is required. It is recommended to use a balanced anesthesia technique where anesthetics are combined with analgesics to reduce the dose of anesthetic required and therefore limit cardiorespiratory depression. Premedication prior to general anesthesia is also recommended as part of a balanced anesthesia technique. This can be achieved by the administration of sedatives combined with opioid analgesics to increase the level of sedation that is achieved. Local analgesia techniques are being increasing used within veterinary anesthesia to improve peri-operative analgesia as part of a multi-modal analgesia technique.

Sedatives

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Opioid analgesics

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

General anesthetics

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Modifiers of neuromuscular transmission

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Local anesthetics

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Drugs for euthanasia

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Murdock M A, Riccó Pereira C H, Aarnes T K, Cremer J, Lerche P, Bednarski R M (2020) Sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of intramuscular administration of alfaxalone and butorphanol combined with acepromazine, midazolam, or dexmedetomidine in dogs. Am J Vet Res 81(1), 65-76 PubMed.
  • Leonardi F, Costa GL, Stagnoli A, Zubin E, Boschi P, Sabbioni A, Simonazzi B (2019) The effect of intramuscular dexmedetomidine-butorphanol combination on tear production in dogs. Can Vet J 60(1), 55-59 PubMed.
  • Trimble T, Bhalla R J, Leece E A (2018) Comparison of sedation in dogs: methadone or butorphanol in combination with dexmedetomidine intravenously. Vet Anaesth Analg 45(5), 597-603 PubMed.
  • Quandt J (2013) Analgesia, anesthesia, and chemical restraint in the emergent small animal patient. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 43(4), 941-953 PubMed.
  • Dewey C W, Guiliano R, Boothe D M et al (2004) Zonisamide therapy for refractory idiopathic epilepsy in dogs. JAAHA 40 (4), 285-291 PubMed.
  • Johnson C (1999) Chemical restraint in the dog and cat. In Practice 21 (3), 111-118 VetMedResource.
  • Karas A Z (1999) Sedation and chemical restraint in the dog and cat. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 14 (1), 15-26 PubMed.
  • Venugopalan C S, Holmes E P, Crawford M P et al (1998) Sedative and analgesic effects of medetomidine in beagle dogs infected and uninfected with heartworm. Vet Res Commun 22 (2), 97-106 PubMed.
  • Venugopalan C S, Holmes E P, Crawford M P et al (1998) Sedative and analgesic effects of medetomidine in beagle dogs infected and uninfected with heartworm. Vet Res Commun 22 (2), 97-106 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D C (1999) Veterinary Drug Handbook. 3rd edn. Iowa State University Press, Ames Iowa.


ADDED