Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Therapeutics: immunological preparation

Contributor(s): Ansar Ahmed, Linda Horspool, Clare Targett, Lauren Trepanier

Vaccines

* Indicates product not licensed for this use in this species.

  • Intended for the active immunization of healthy dogs.
  • Successful vaccination depends upon correct storage and administration of the vaccine and the animal's ability to respond.
  • Immunocompetence compromised by a variety of factors including poor health, nutritional status, genetic factors, concurrent drug therapy and stress. Ability to respond to vaccination is also influenced by age, maturity, the presence of maternally derived antibodies, concurrent infection and environmental infection pressure.
  • An initial course of 2 vaccinations at an interval of 2-4 weeks is required in most instances. Final vaccination in the initial course is usually at 10-12 weeks old.
  • A protective response usually takes 1-2 weeks to develop, depending on the antigen and product.
  • Revaccination interval depends on the antigen and product but is usually around 1 year and may be up to 3 years for some core antigens (canine distemper, canine parvovirus, canine infectious hepatitis, some rabies).
  • Vaccines available to actively immunize dogs against:
    • Canine distemper Canine distemper disease : vaccinate from 6 weeks. Last dose in primary course from 10-12 weeks old.
    • Parvovirus Parvovirus disease associated with CPV-2 : from 4-8 weeks old. Last dose in primary course from 10-12 weeks old.
    • Infectious canine hepatitis Canine adenovirus type 1 disease : from 6-8 weeks. Last dose in primary course from 10-12 weeks old.
    • Bordetella bronchiseptica Bordetella bronchiseptica Acute infectious tracheobronchitis : for intranasal administration from 2 weeks. Single dose should be given 3-5 days, depending on the antigen, prior to each period of anticipated risk, eg temporary kenneling.
    • Parainfluenza Canine parainfluenza virus 2 : from 8 weeks. Last dose in primary course from 10-12 weeks old.
    • Leptospirosis Leptospirosis : from 6-8 weeks old. Last dose in primary course from 10-12 weeks old. Annual or semi-annual revaccination, depending on bacterin and exposure risk.
    • Rabies Rabies disease : for the active immunization aginst rabies to reduce clinical signs and mortality. Single dose in animals older than 12 weeks. An adequate serological response (>0.5 IU) can be measured 2-4 weeks after vaccination, depending on the product. Revaccination every 2-3 years, depending on the product used.
    • Animals for export must meet the requirements of the European Regulation on the animal health requirements for the non-commercial movement of pet animals (EC Regulation No. 998/2003). Details of the requirements can be found on the website of DEFRA (http://www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/quarantine/pets/regulation/eu_reg.htm).
    • Tetanus Tetanus : active immunization is rarely indicated in small animals but can be administered where infection with Clostridium tetaniis expected.
      Do not use live vaccines in pregnant animals.

Other

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Immunosuppression

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers
  • Recent references fromPubMed.
  • Burkitt J M et al(2007)Risk factors associated with outcome in dogs with tetanus: 38 cases (1987-2005). JAVMA230(1), 76-83PubMed.
  • Gaskell R M, Dawson S & Radford A D (2006)Duration of immunity (DOI) - the regulatory issues. Vet Microbiol117(1), 80-85PubMed.
  • Paul M A, Carmichael L E, Childers H, Cotter S, Davidson A, Ford R, Hurley K F, Roth J A, Schultz R D, Thacker E & Welborn L (2006)2006 AAHA Canine Vaccine Guidelines. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc42(2), 80-80PubMed.
  • Schultz R D (2006)Duration of immunity for canine and feline vaccines: a review. Vet Microbiol117, 75-79PubMed.
  • Gaskell R M, Gettinby G, Graham S J, Skilton D (2002)Veterinary Products Committee working group report on feline and canine vaccination. Vet Rec150, 126-134PubMed.
  • Miller E (1997)Immunosuppression - an overview. Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim)12, 144-149PubMed.
  • Miller E (1997)The use of cytotoxic agents in the treatment of immune-mediated diseases of dogs and cats. Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim)12(3), 157-170PubMed.

Other sources of information


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