Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Surgical oncology: overview

Synonym(s): Cancer surgery, Tumor removal

Contributor(s): Kathryn Pratschke, Pieter Nelissen

Introduction

  • Treatment of cancer is rapidly changing and evolving thanks to advances in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Despite these technological advances however, surgery is still considered the most important component of treatment in veterinary patients with solid tumors. To help obtain the best outcome with tumor removal, veterinary surgeons need to keep the following in mind:
    • What type of tumor does the patient have, and what is the usual biological behavior of that tumor type? What is appropriate for one lump might be catastrophic for another.
    • What surgical options are feasible, suitable and appropriate? Will a good outcome require referral to someone with more experience?
    • Is there a potential indication for adjunctive treatments, such as chemotherapy Chemotherapy: general principles or radiation therapy Radiotherapy? These options should not be considered afterwards if the surgical outcome is suboptimal, they should be part of the plan from the outset.

Patient assessment and selection

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Tumor biopsy

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Why is it important to have a diagnosis before definitive surgery?

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Preoperative tumor staging

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General principles of surgical oncology

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Surgical margins in oncology

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Sentinel lymph nodes

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Summary

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Bray J P, Polton G A, McSporran K D, Bridges J & Whitbread T M (2014) Canine Soft Tissue Sarcoma Managed in First Opinion Practice: Outcome in 350 Cases. Vet Surg 43, 774–782 PubMed.
  • Demetriou J L, Brearley M J, Constantino-Casas F, Addington C &Dobson J (2012) Intentional marginal excision of canine limb soft tissue sarcomas followed by radiotherapy. JSAP 53,174-181 PubMed
  • Liptak J M (2009) The principles of surgical oncology: Diagnosis and staging. Compend Contin Ed Pract Ve31(9), E1-E12 PubMed.
  • Cohen M, Bohling M W, Wright J C, Welles E A, Spano J S (2003) Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of cytologic examination: 269 cases (1999-2000). JAVMA 222(7), 964-967 PubMed.
  • Aitken M L, Patnaik A K (2000) Comparison of needle-core (trucut) biopsy and surgical biopsy for the diagnosis of cutaneous and subcutaneous masses: A prospective study of 51 cases. JAAHA 36,153-157 PubMed.
  • Eich C S, Whitehair J G, Moroff S D & Heeb L A (2000) The accuracy of intraoperative cytopathological diagnosis compared with conventional histopathological diagnosis. JAVMA 36(1), 16-18 PubMed.
  • Soderstrom MJ, Gilson SD (1995) Principles of surgical oncology. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Prac 25, 97-110 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Ehrhart N & Culp W T N (2012) Principles of Surgical Oncology.  In: Veterinary Surgical Oncology. First Edn. Eds Kudnig ST, Séguin B. Iowa:  Wiley Blackwell, pp 3-13.
  • Farese J P, Bacon N J, Liptak J M, Kow K (2012) Introduction to oncology for the general surgeon. In: Veterinary Surgery: Small Animal.  Eds Tobias KM, Johnston SA. St. Louis: Elsevier, pp 304-324.
  • Poston G J (2007) Is there a surgical oncology? In: Textbook of Surgical Oncology.  Eds Poston G J , Beauchamp R D, Ruers T J M. London: Informa Healthcare, p 1.


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