ISSN 2398-2942      

Radiology: upper urinary tract

icanis
Contributor(s):

Fraser McConnell


Introduction

Overview

  • Radiography allows evaluation of kidney number, size, shape and position.
    Significant renal disease may be present despite radiological appearance of normal kidneys.
  • Contrast radiography is required for full evaluation of the urinary tract.
  • Radiography is of limited value in assessing renal function Renal function assessment.

Radiographic considerations

  • The ventrodorsal projection is the most useful for evaluation the kidneys.
  • A low KVp and high mAs should be used to maximize contrast of abdominal radiographs.
  • A grid is necessary if the depth of tissue is >10 cm.
  • Care should be taken to include the entire urinary tract for most investigations.

Restraint

Artifacts

Urine samples should be obtained prior to contrast studies as the contrast media will alter the results of urinalysis.

  • Nipples overlying the kidneys or bladder may be mistaken for calculi.
    To identify position of nipples paint them with barium or attach a paper clip.

Indications

Radiographic anatomy

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Interpretation

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Additional studies

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Kaufmann M L, Osbourne C A, Johnston G R et al (1987) Renal ectopia in a dog and a cat. JAVMA 190 (1), 73-77 PubMed.

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