Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Fundoscopy: normal findings

Contributor(s): Natasha Mitchell, David Gould

Examination techniques

  • Examination of the fundus is achieved by ophthalmoscopy.
  • Direct ophthalmoscopy provides a small field of view of a magnified image, and is useful when examining an area in greater detail Direct ophthalmoscopy.
  • Indirect ophthalmoscopy provides a wide field of view, is the best way of scanning the entire fundus and is possible even with partial opacity of the ocular media Indirect ophthalmoscopy.

Examination preparation

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Normal fundus components

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Normal variations with age

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Normal variations with subalbinism

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Barnett KC (1994) The canine ocular fundus: Normal variations. The Compendium 16 (3), 348-356.

 


ADDED