ISSN 2398-2942      

Fundoscopy: abnormal findings

icanis

Synonym(s): Retinopathy, optic neuropathy


Examination

  • In order to appreciate the abnormal retina, it is essential to become familiar with the normal fundus and its many variations.
  • Examination of the fundus is achieved by ophthalmoscopy.
  • Direct ophthalmoscopy provides a small field of view of a magnified image, and is useful when examining an area in greater detail Direct ophthalmoscopy.
  • Indirect ophthalmoscopy provides a wide field of view, is the best way of scanning the entire fundus and is possible even with partial opacity of the ocular media Indirect ophthalmoscopy.

Congenital and early onset conditions

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Inherited retinal degenerations

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Non-inherited retinopathies

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Smith K (2014) Clinical examination and diseases of the fundus in dogs. In Practice 36 (7),  315-333 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Ophthalmology, 3rd edition (eds. D Gould and G McLellan), Chapter 18. The Fundus. GJ McLellan and K Narfström, pp 322-356.
  • Slatters Fundamentals of Veterinary Ophthalmology, 5th edition (eds. DJ Maggs, PE Miller and R Ofri). Elsevier. Chapter 15 Retina. pp 299-333.
  • Canine Ophthalmology. An Atlas & Text. KC Barnett, J Sansom & C Heinrich. Saunders. Chaper 14 Fundus. pp 155-180.

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