Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Dietetic diet: for diabetes mellitus

Contributor(s): Marge Chandler

Pathophysiology

  • Virtually all dogs have insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM) Diabetes mellitus at the time of diagnosis.
  • Hypoinsulinemia is always present in IDDM.
  • In IDDM the pancreas shows a reduction in the number and size of pancreatic islets, a decrease in the number of beta cells within islets, and hydropic ballooning degeneration of beta cells.
  • The cause of IDDM in dogs is likely multifactorial.
  • Genetic predisposition is suggested by familial associations and breeds with increased risk. Some of the breeds with an increased risk include: Australian terriers Australian Terrier , standard and miniature Schnauzers Schnauzer: Standard Schnauzer: miniature , Bichon Frise Bichon Frise , Spitz, Fox terrier Fox Terrier - Wire , Miniature and toy poodles Poodle: miniature Poodle: Toy , Samoyed Samoyed , Cairn terrier Cairn Terrier , Keeshond Keeshond , Maltese Maltese , Lhasa apso Lhasa Apso and Yorkshire terrier Yorkshire Terrier.
  • Potential suggested factors in the etiopathogenesis or increased risk of diabetes mellitus in dogs include:
  • Pancreatitis is often seen although the incidence of histological evidence of pancreatitis is noted in only 30 to 40% of diabetic dogs.
  • Transient or reversible diabetes mellitus is uncommon in dogs but may, for example, occur in a dog with subclinical diabetes in a dog given corticosteroids or one with hyperadrenocorticism.
  • Secondary diabetes or carbohydrate intolerance may be seen with insulin antagonistic diseases or medications, eg diestrus or pregnancy. These bitches have an increased chance of developing IDDM and should be neutered.

Dietary requirements

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Special considerations

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Diets for dogs with diabetes mellitus

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Fleeman L M, Rand J S, Markwell P J (2009) Lack of advantage of high-fibre, moderate-carbohydrate diets in dogs with stabilised diabetes. J Small Anim Pract 50 (11), 604-614 PubMed.
  • Nelson R W, Ihle S L, Lewis L D et al (1991) Effects of dietary fiber supplementation on glycemic control in dogs with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Am J Vet Res 52 (12), 2060-2066 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Fascetti A & Delaney S J (2012) Nutritional management of endocrine disease. In: Applied Veterinary Clinical Nutrition. Editors Fascetti AJ and Delaney SJ. Wiley Blackwell , West Sussex, UK. pp 289-300.
  • Feldman E D & Nelson R W (2004) Canine diabetes mellitus. In: Canine and Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction. 3rd ed. Saunders Co. St Louis, Missouri. pp 486-538.


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