Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Dietetic diet: dissolving and decreasing risk of struvite stones (uroliths)

Contributor(s): Marge Chandler

Pathophysiology

  • Struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) is one of the most common uroliths (urinary stones) in dogs Urolithiasis. Especially in the dog, struvite calculi usually follow infection with urease-producing organisms ( StaphylococcusProteusor ureaplasma).
  • Urease is an enzyme that breaks down urea, causing the release of ammonium and bicarbonate ions into the urine. Supersaturation with ammonium ions promotes struvite formation, while the bicarbonate ions alkalinise the urine. Struvite formation is further enhanced by the presence of alkaline urine.
  • Since male dogs are less susceptible to urinary tract infection Cystitis , struvite calculi are more common in female dogs.
  • Sterile struvite uroliths may sometimes occur in dogs in the absence of infection.
  • Healthy dogs may have struvite crystals in their urine, and should only be treated if they form stones (uroliths).

Dietary requirements to dissolve or decrease the risk of struvite stones

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Special considerations

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Recipes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers
  • Recent references fromPubMed.
  • Calabro S, Tudisco R, Bianchi S, Grossi M, De Bonis A, Cutrignelli M I (2011)Management of struvite uroliths in dogs. Br J Nutr106Suppl 1(0), S191-193PubMed.
  • Houston D M, Weese H E, Evason M D, Biourge V, van Hoek I (2011)A diet with a struvite relative supersaturation less than 1 is effective in dissolving struvite stones in vivo. Br J Nutr106 Suppl 1(0), S90-92PubMed.
  • Rinkardt N E, Houston D M (2004)Dissolution of infection-induced struvite bladder stones by using a noncalculolytic diet and antibiotic therapy. Can Vet J45(10), 838-840PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Bartges J, Kirk C (2007)Nutrition and Urolithiasis. ACVIM Proceedings 2007.
  • Bartges J, Kirk C (2007)Nutrition and Urinary Tract Disease-Myths and Legends. ACVIM Proceedings 2007.


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