Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Central venous pressure

Synonym(s): CVP

Contributor(s): Elisa Mazzaferro

Introduction

  • Central venous pressure (CVP) is the pressure measured within the lumen of the cranial vena cava within the thorax, just as it enters the right atrium Central venous pressure 01: catheter in position. The measured value is used to approximate the pressure within the right atrium. It is a measure of right ventricular filling pressure. It is a reflection of intravascular volume, cardiac function and venous compliance.
  • CVP is not interchangeable with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), which is an indicator of left atrial pressure. PCWP can be measured via a catheter (Swan-Ganz) placed into the pulmonary artery and wedged to a branch of a pulmonary artery.
  • Specific indications for measurement of CVP include:
    • During resuscitation from hypovolemia.
    • During diuresis.
    • In patients with suspected right heart dysfunction.
  • CVP can be measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or in centimeters of water (cm H2O). To convert from mm Hg to cm H2O, (mm Hg x 1.36) = cm H2O.

Materials required to perform CVP measurements

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CVP normal values

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Causes of elevated CVP

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Factors that influence CVP

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Contraindications to CVP measurements

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Waddell L S (2000) Direct blood pressure monitoringClin Tech Small Anim Pract 15(3) 111-118.
  • Machon R G, Raffee M R & Robinson E P (1995) Central venous pressure measurements in the caudal vena cava of sedated catsJ Vet Emerg Crit Care 5(2) 121-129.

Other sources of information

  • Monnet E (2002) Cardiovascular monitoring. In: The Veterinary ICU Book. Eds W E Wingfield and M R Raffee. Teton New Media, Jackson Hole, WY. pp 266-280.
  • Abbott J A (2001) Dilated cardiomyopathy. In: Veterinary Emergency Secrets. 2nd edition. Ed W E Wingfield. Hanley and Belfus, Philadelphia. pp 203-211.
  • Selavka C M & Rozanski E (2001) Invasive blood pressure monitoring. In: Veterinary Emergency Secrets. 2nd edn. Ed W E Wingfield. Hanley and Belfus, Philadelphia. pp 469-471.
  • Walton R S (2001) Shock. In: Veterinary Emergency Secrets. 2nd edn. Ed W E Wingfield. Hanley and Belfus, Philadelphia. pp 28-36.


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