Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Cardiac arrest

Contributor(s): John Dodam, Sheilah Robertson, Polly Taylor, Claire Waters

Introduction

  • The success rate of CPR Cardiopulmonary arrest: pathophysiology is disappointingly low.
  • One retrospective investigation of intensive care patients at Colorado State University found that only 4.1% of the dogs and 9.6% of the cats which suffered cardiopulmonary arrest survived to discharge.
  • In contrast, animals which suffer respiratory arrest alone are much more likely to be successfully resuscitated Emergency resuscitation.
  • Anesthetized patients suffering CPA may have improved outcome as they are intubated Endotracheal intubation , breathing 100% oxygen, and have a peripheral catheter in place. The incidence of anesthesia-induced cardiopulmonary arrest has been reported to be as high as 35/10,000. Anesthesia-related CPA may be due to equipment failure, respiratory or cardiovascular problems, or human error.
  • Anesthetic overdose (absolute or relative), is also an important cause of CPA associated with anesthesia.
  • Four factors are generally believed to be related to poor outcome of CPA:
    • Long arrest time prior to initiation of CPR.
    • Prolonged ventricular fibrillation Ventricular fibrillation.
    • Inadequate coronary or cerebral perfusion during CPR.
    • Pre-existing disease.
  • Successful outcomes depend upon:
    • Prompt recognition of developing problems.
    • Rapid diagnosis of the underlying cause.
    • Taking appropriate measures to correct the problem quickly.
    • Monitoring of patient during anesthesia to avert accidents during and after anesthesia.
  • Main requirements during anesthesia:
    • Adequate delivery of oxygen to tissues (3-5 ml/kg/min).
    • Removal of waste products from tissues.
    • Failure to achieve the above can result in serious complications particularly tissue hypoxia and cell death.
    • Main requirement of the circulation is to deliver an adequate supply of well oxygenated blood to the tissues. Adequate perfusion of tissue is as important as oxygenation of the blood.
    • Mean blood pressure should be maintained above 70 mmHg.

Hypotension and hypovolemia

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Cardiac arrhythmias

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Other problems

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Hall L W & Taylor P M (1994) Eds Anesthesia of the Cat. London: Bailliere Tindall. pp 249-266, 270-273, 274-309. ISBN 0 7020 1665 9
  • Bedford P G C (1991) Small Animal Anesthesia, The Increased Risk Patient. London: Bailliere Tindall. p 92- 132. ISBN 0 7020 1501 6.
  • Richards D L S (1989) Anesthetic accidents and emergencies. In: Manual of Anesthesia for Small Animal Practice. Ed: A D R Hilbery. Cheltenham: British Small Animal Veterinary Association. pp 95-99. ISBN 0 905214 09 9.
  • Hall L W (1982) Relaxant drugs in small animal anesthesia. In: Proceedings of the Association of Veterinary Anesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland Supplement to 10, pp 144-155.


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