Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

BVA Kennel Club hip dysplasia scheme

Synonym(s): BVA/KC HD Scheme

Contributor(s): Ruth Dennis, John Houlton

Introduction

  • Hip dysplasia (HD) Hip: dysplasia is a condition of the hip joint characterized by instability of the joint. It is generally considered that puppies are born with a normal conformation of the joint but laxity or instability of the joint develops early in life. The mechanism for the development of laxity is largely genetically mediated but is influenced by environmental factors. These include the size and breed of the dog, its rate of growth, type of feeding, and the type and duration of exercise.
  • During growth the lax hip may become painful due to the development of inflammatory joint disease secondary to the instability. Initially there will be inflammation of the joint and thickening of the joint capsule and teres ligament which will encourage stabilization of the joint.
  • As the condition progresses, new bone formation and articular erosion develops and muscle development is delayed because of disuse and/or pain.  However, by the time the dog is adult, the hip muscles will usually increase in development and add to the secondary stability of the joint.
  • Although the joint becomes more stable at skeletal maturity its range of motion will be reduced in comparison with a normal dog due to the arthritic new bone. Changes then progress much more slowly during the life of the dog. Their rate depends on the weight of the dog and the type and duration of its activity. Observable signs may range from normal to minor changes in gait (in the mildly affected cases) to obvious lameness, stiffness after rest, exercise intolerance and pain.
  • The BVA/KC Hip Dysplasia Scheme was introduced in 1965 to identify affected dogs and to provide advice to breeders in order to reduce the prevalence of the condition which can have serious effects on the health, behaviour and welfare of dogs. Hip radiographs of any breed of dog (including non-registered animals and crossbreds) may submitted to the scheme. Nevertheless, the scheme is particularly recommended for those breeds where hip dysplasia is common.
  • Some common breeds at risk are:
  •  For the scheme to be meaningful and successful it is important that images from every dog radiographed be submitted for grading, regardless of whether the animal is required for breeding and whatever the state of the hips. This is particularly important for the generation of estimated breeding values (EBVs) Breeding: estimated breeding values since the greater the number of dogs whose hips are scored under the scheme, the more accurate the EBVs become.
Print off the owner factsheet BVA /KC hip dysplasia scheme  BVA /KC hip dysplasia scheme to give to your client.

Protocol for Submission of radiographs to the BVA/KC Scheme

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Radiography for HD assessment

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Assessing radiographs

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Use of the Scheme's information

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Use of the Scheme's information

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMedResource and PubMed.
  • Dennis R (2012) Interpretation and use of BVA/KC hip scores in dogs. In Practice 34, 178-194.
  • Powers M Y, Biery D N, Lawler D F et al (2004) Use of the caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte as an early marker for future development of osteoarthritis associated with hip dysplasia in dogs. JAVMA 225, 233-237 PubMed.
  • Wood J L, Lakani K H, Rogers K (2002) Heritability and epidemiology of canine hip dysplasia score and its components in Labrador retrievers in the UK. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 55,  95-108 PubMed.
  • Saunders J H, Godefroid T & Snaps F R et al (1999) Diagnosis of hip dysplasia. Vet Rec 145 (4), 109-112.
  • Gibbs C (1997) The BVA/KC scoring scheme for control of hip dysplasia. Vet Rec 141, 275-284 PubMed.
  • Kealy R D, Lawler D F, Ballam J M et al (1997) Five-year longitudinal study on limited food consumption and development of osteoarthritis in coxofemoral joints in dogs. JAVMA 210, 222-225 PubMed.
  • Swenson L, Audell L & Hedhammer A (1997) Prevalence and inheritance of and selection for hip dysplasia in seven breeds of dogs in Sweden and benefit:cost analysis of a screening and control program. JAVMA 210, 207-214 PubMed.


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