Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Anesthesia: in gastrointestinal surgery

Contributor(s): Jackie Brearley


  • Patients with gastrointestinal disease require special considerations in the peri-operative period. A thorough understanding of the pathologic mechanisms of each disease process is important for appropriate management each condition.

Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV)

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Septic peritonitis from gastrointestinal disease

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Protein losing enteropathy (PLE)

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Further Reading


Refereed papers
  • Recent references fromPubMed.
  • Elke G, Shadler D et al(2008)Current practice in Nutritional support and its association with mortality in septic patients-Results from a national, prospective, multicenter study. CCM36(6), 1-6.
  • Martin L G, Luther T Y et al(2008)Serum antibodies against human albumin in critically ill and healthy dogs. JAVMA232(7), 1004-1009PubMed.
  • Matthews KA (2008)The Therapeutic Use of 25% Human Serum Albumin in Critically Ill Dogs and Cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract(38), 595-605PubMed.
  • Burkit J, Haskins S et al(2007)Relative Adrenal Insufficiency in Dogs with Sepsis. JVIM21, 226-231PubMed.
  • Buber T, Saragusty J et al(2007)Evaluation of lidocane treatment and risk factors for death associated with gastric dilatation and volvulus in dogs: 112 cases (1997-2005). JAVMA230(9), 1334-1339PubMed.
  • Francis A H, Martin L G et al(2007)Adverse reactions suggestive of type III hypersensitivity in six healthy dogs given human albumin. JAVMA230(6), 873-879PubMed.
  • Beck J J, Staatz A J et al(2006)Risk factors associated with short-term outcome and development of perioperative complications in dogs undergoing surgery because of gastric dilatation-volvulus: 166 cases (1992-2003). JAVMA229(12), 1934-1939PubMed.
  • Bergener I A, Kovacevic A et al(2006)Cardiac Troponins as Indicators of Acute Myocardial Damage in Dogs. JVIM20, 277-283PubMed.
  • Parton A T, Volk S W, Weisse C (2006)Gastric ulceration subsequent to partial invagination of the stomach in a dog with gastric dilatation-volvulus. JAVMA228(12), 1895-1900PubMed.
  • Sihler K C, Nathens A B (2006)Management of Severe Sepsis in the Surgical Patient. Surgical Clinics of North America86, 1457-1481PubMed.
  • Dubois M C, Orellana-Jimenez C et al(2006)Albumin administration improves organ function in critically ill hypoalbuminemic patients: A prospective, randomized, controlled, pilot study. CCM34(10), 2536-2540.
  • Aroch I, Klement, E, Segev G (2005)Clinical, Biochemical, and Hematological Characteristics, Disease Prevalence, and Prognosis of Dogs Presenting with Neutorphil Cytoplasmic Toxicity. JVIM19, 64-73PubMed.
  • Mathews K A, Barry M (2005)The use of 25% human serum albumin: outcome and efficacy in raising serum albumin and systemic blood pressure in critically ill dogs and cats. JVECC15(2), 110-118.
  • Ordonez C A, Puyana J C (2004)Management of Peritonitis in the Critically Ill Patient. Surgical Clinics of North America86, 1323-1349PubMed.
  • Throop J L, Kerl M E, Cohn L A (2004)Albumin in Health and Disease: Causes and Treatment of Hypoalbuminemia. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet( ) , 932-939.
  • Bonczynski J J, Ludwig L L et al(2003)Comparison of Peritoneal Fluid and Peripheral Blood pH, Bicarbonate, Glucose and Lactate Concentration as a Diagnostic Tool for Septic Peritonitis in Dogs and Cats (2003). Veterinary Surgery32, 161-166PubMed.
  • Mazzaferro E M, Rudloff E, Kirby R (2002)The role of albumin replacement in the critically ill veterinary patient. JVECC12(2), 113-124.
  • Lanz O, Ellison G et al(2001)Surgical Treatment of Septic Peritonitis Without Abdominal Drainage in 28 Dogs. JAAHA37, 87-92.
  • German A, Hall E, Day M (2001)Immune Cell Populations within the Duodenal Mucosa of Dogs with Enteropathies. JVIM15, 14-25PubMed.
  • Brockman, D J, Holt D E, Washabau R J (2000)Pathogenesis of Canine Gastric Dilatation-Voluvlus Syndrome: Is there a Unifying Hypothesis. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian22(11), 1-7.
  • Glickman L T, Glickman N W et al(2000)Non-dietary risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus in large and giant breed dogs. JAVMA217(10), 1492-1499PubMed.
  • Winkler K P, Greenfield C L (2000)Potential Prognostic Indicators in Diffuse Peritonitis Treated with Open Peritoneal Drainage in the Canine Patient. JVECC10(4), 259-265.
  • dePapp E, Drobatz K J, Huges D (1999)Plasma lactate as a predictor of gastric necrosis and survival among dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus 102 cases (1995-1998). JAMVA215(1), 49-52.
  • Brockman D J, Washabau R J, Drobatz K J (1995)Canine gastric dilatation/volvulus syndrome in a veterinary critical care unit: 295 cases (1986-1992). JAVMA207(4), 460-464PubMed.
  • Harvey J (1990)Complications of Small Intestinal Biopsy in Hypoalbuminemic Dogs. Vet Surg19(4), 289-292.

Other sources of information

  • Silverstein D C, Hopper K (2009) Small Animal Critical Care Medicine.Saunders, St Louis, pp 579-588.
  • Hackendahl N H, Hill R C (2007)Enteral Feeding in Dogs with Septic Peritonitis. Conference proceedings from ACVIM.
  • Kerl Marie E (2005)Acid-Base Abnormalities in the Septic Patient. Proceedings from the International Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Symposium.
  • Carol G (2004)Local Analgesic and Anesthetic techniques. Western Veterinary Conference Proceedings.
  • SAFE Study Investigators (2004)A Comparison of Albumin and Saline for Fluid Resuscitation in the Intensive Care Unit. NEJM350(22), 2247-2256.
  • Steiner J M (2003)Protein-Losing Enteropathies in Dogs. Proceedings from the World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress.
  • Delaforcade A (2003)Post Operative Care of the Septic Patient. Proceedings from the International Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Symposium.
  • Bonangura J (2000) Current Veterinary Therapeutics XIII.pp139-139; 641-642.
  • Plumb D (1999)Veterinary Drug Handbook5th ed.