Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Uterus: subinvolution of placental site

Synonym(s): SIPS

Contributor(s): Kyle Braund

Introduction

  • Occasional post-partum disease, especially after first or second litter.
  • Signs: prolonged hemorrhagic vulval discharge; occasionally severe hemorrhage shortly after whelping.
  • Diagnosis: often subjective, based on duration of discharge (usually more than 42 days).
  • Treatment: hysterectomy, value of common treatments is questionable.
  • Prognosis: many bitches will recover without treatment; rarely, trophoblastic cells → uterine perforation and peritonitis.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Age.

Pathophysiology

  • Delayed involution → prolonged blood loss from placentation sites; canine involution is very slow (90-140 days) therefore some cases may not be abnormal.
  • Single or multiple placental sites → almost neoplastic, viz trophoblastic cells penetrating the uterine wall → peritonitis.
  • ?Coagulopathy, eg von Willebrand's disease → severe post whelping exsanguination.

Timecourse

  • Occasionally acute post-whelping.
  • Usually >42 days post-whelping and stops spontaneously <100 days post-whelping.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Dickie M B & Arbeiter K (1993) Diagnosis and therapy of the subinvolution of placental sites in the bitch. J Repro Fert Suppl 47, 471-475 PubMed.
  • Reberg S R, Peter A T, Blevins W E (1992) Subinvolution of placental sites in dogs. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 14 (6), 789-793 VetMedResource.
  • Johnson J U (1990) Subinvolution of placental sites in the bitch - diagnosis and management. Kal Kan Forum (3), 10-15 VetMedResource.
  • Al-Bassam M A, Thompson R G & O'Donnell L (1981) Normal postpartum involution of the uterus in the dog. Can J Comp Med 45 (3), 217-32 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Linde-Forsberg C & Eneroth A (2000)Abnormalities in pregnancy, parturition and the periparturient period.In:Textbood of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 5th edn. Ettinger S J & Feldman E C (eds). W B Saunders, Philadelphia. pp 1527-1539.
  • Wheeler S L (1986)Subinvolution of placental sites in the bitch.In: Morrow D A (ed)Current Therapy in Theriogenology. 2nd Edn. London: W B Saunders (good review).


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