Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Ureter: urolithiasis

Contributor(s): Lori Ludwig, Aidan B McAlinden

Introduction

  • Uncommon problem in dogs.
  • May cause intraluminal obstruction.
  • Most pass without surgical intervention.
  • Some require surgical removal.
  • Less than 7 days obstruction: no permanent kidney damage.

Pathogenesis

Predisposing factors

General
  • Uroliths originate from the kidneys and are associated with cystic uroliths and nephroliths in approximately half of cases.
  • The same factors that predispose dogs to cystic calculi, eg infection associated with struvite stones, can result in urolithiasis Urolithiasis.

Pathophysiology

  • If obstruction if relieved within 7 days - little or no permanent damage.
  • Prolonged ureteric obstruction (>7 days) leads to dilation of proximal segment and hydronephrosis Hydronephrosis / hydroureter.
  • Correction of obstruction at 4 weeks: renal function 25% of normal.
  • An obstruction that persists for 4 weeks or longer will result in permanent loss of kidney function.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Kyles A E, Stone E A, Gookin J et al (1998) Diagnosis and surgical management of obstructive ureteral calculi in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 213 (8), 1150-1156 PubMed.
  • Arnbrust L, Kraft S L, Cowan L A et al (1997) Radiographic diagnosis: canine ureteral calculus. Vet Radiol 38 (5), 360-362 PubMed.
  • Block G, Adams L G, Widmer W R et al (1996) Use of extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy for treatment of nephrolithiasis and ureterolithiasis in five dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 208 (4), 531-536 PubMed.
  • Dupre G P, Dee L G & Dee J F (1990) Uterotomies for treatment of ureterolithiasis in two dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 26, 500-504.


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