Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Uremia

Synonym(s): Uremic syndrome

Contributor(s): Phil Nicholls, Melissa Wallace

Introduction

  • Polysystemic toxic syndrome resulting from severe azotemia Azotemia due to decreased renal function. Azotemia is an increased concentration of non-protein nitrogenous compounds, eg urea and creatinine, in the blood.
  • Cause: acute or chronic renal failure or prolonged urinary tract obstruction.
  • Signs: vomiting, anorexia, lethargy/depression, anemia, weakness, hypothermia, oral ulcers, melena, muscle, tremors, seizures.
  • Diagnosis: signs, blood biochemistry, urinalysis.
  • Prognosis: depends on severity of renal damage.

Pathogenesis

Etiology


Acute renal failure Chronic renal failure

Predisposing factors

General

Specific

Pathophysiology


Acute renal failure
  • Prerenal, renal or post-renal azotemia → decreased glomerular filtration → oliguria → retention of waste products → toxemia/uremia.
Chronic renal failure
  • Loss of functional nephrons → inability to concentrate urine → polyuria, polydipsia.
  • Retention of waste products → toxemia → catabolism of body tisues → anorexia.
  • Toxemia → increased erythrocyte fragility, bone marrow depression → anemia.
  • Toxemia → oral and gastrointestinal ulceration → vomiting, diarrhea and anorexia.
  • Loss of functional nephrons → decreased GFR → increased phosphorus → decreased calcium → increased PTH → normalizes calcium and phosphorus but causes renal secondary osteodystrophy.

Timecourse

  • Acute or chronic.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Brassard J A , Meyers K M, Person M et al (1994) Experimentally induced renal failure in the dog as an animal model of uremic bleeding. J Lab Clin Med 124 (1), 48-54 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Schluman R L & Krawiec D R (2000)Gastrointestinal Complications of Uremia.In: Kirk'sCurrent Veterinary Therapy XIII. J D Bonagura (ed). W B Saunders. pp 864-866.


ADDED