Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Trichiasis

Contributor(s): Dennis E Brooks, David L Williams

Introduction

  • Cause: normal facial hair (usually from the eyelid) is abnormally angled so that it contacts the cornea.
  • Often seen in the elderly English Cocker Spaniel English Cocker Spaniel in association with atonic entropion Entropion , and in brachycephalics with prominent nasal folds.
  • Can also result from eyelid scarring → lid distortion.
  • Signs: red eye, ocular pain, excessive lacrimation, corneal ulceration.
  • Diagnosis: history, breed, clinical signs.
  • Treatment: surgery.
  • Prognosis: good/fair.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Inherited disease.
  • Prominent nasal folds.
  • Atonic entropion Entropion.
  • Iatrogenic (previous eyelid surgery causing lid distortion) → scarring.
  • Eyelid injury → scarring.
  • Masses on eyelids.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Prominent nasal folds in pugs, Pekingese and Bulldogs.
  • Medial canthal trichiasis in brachycephalics.

Pathophysiology

  • Elderly English Cocker Spaniel: decreased elasticity in the skin on the top of the head → slipping of the palpebral fissures → upper eyelid hairs contact the cornea, ie entropion Entropion.
  • Brachycephalics: prominent nasal folds → corneal irritation → superficial keratitis (often pigmentary).
  • Cicatricial: previous eyelid scarring (often iatrogenic) → lid distortion → trichiasis.
  • Brachycephalics: medial central trichiasis → corneal irritation → epiphora.
  • Abnormally positioned skin hairs induce corneal epithelial injury to result in corneal ulceration, vascularization and corneal pigmentation.
  • Blepharospasm and tearing may also occur.

Timecourse

  • Nasal fold trichiasis may be asymptomatic, cause only pigmentation of the cornea, or can result in severe keratitis.
  • Nasal fold induced changes can be chronic to rapid.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Bedford P G C (1988) Conditions of the eyelids in the dog. JSAP 29 (7), 416-428 VetMedResource.
  • Stades F C & Boeve M H (1987) Surgical correction of upper eyelid trichiasis - entropion - results and follow up in 55 cases. JAAHA 23 (6), 607-10 AGRIS FAO.


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