ISSN 2398-2969      

Transitional vertebrae

icanis
Contributor(s):

Kyle Braund


Introduction

  • Clinically insignificant and usually noted as an incidental finding.
  • Vertebrae have properties of two major sections of the vertebral column.
  • Caudal cervical vertebrae may have transverse processes that resemble ribs.
  • Sacralization occurs where the 7th lumbar vertebra fuses to the first sacral vertebra.
  • Sacral vertebrae may occasionally have transverse processes like lumbar vertebrae.

Pathogenesis

Predisposing factors

General

  • Presently unknown.

Specific

  • Presently unknown.

Pathophysiology

  • Congenital anomalies of the vertebral column are due to improper embryogenesis or to abnormal growth and development secondary to improper embryogenesis.
  • Each vertebra is derived from the caudal half of one somite and the cranial half of another.
  • The intervertebral disk develops between vertebrae.
  • The nucleus pulposus is the remnant of the notochord.
  • Failure of correct segmentation results in vertebral anomalies such as block, hemi and transitional vertebrae.

Timecourse

  • Months or years in dogs that develop degenerative lumbosacral stenosis.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Damur-Djuric N, Steffen F, Hässig M, Morgan J P, Flückiger M A (2006) Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae in dogs: classification, prevalence, and association with sacroiliac morphology. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 47 (1), 32-38 PubMed.
  • Flückiger M A, Damur-Djuric N, Hässig M, Morgan J P, Steffen F (2006) A lumbosacral transitional vertebra in the dog predisposes to cauda equina syndrome. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 47 (1), 39-44 PubMed.
  • Scharf G, Steffen F, Grünenfelder F, Morgan J P, Flückiger M (2004) The lumbosacral junction in working german shepherd dogs - neurological and radiological evaluation. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 51 (1), 27-32 PubMed.
  • Breit S, Knaus I, Künzel W (2003) Differentiation between lumbosacral transitional vertebrae, pseudolumbarisation, and lumbosacral osteophyte formation in ventrodorsal radiographs of the canine pelvis. Vet J 165 (1), 36-42 PubMed.
  • Jones J C, Inzana K D (2000) Subclinical CT abnormalities in the lumbosacral spine of older large-breed dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 41 (1), 19-26 PubMed.
  • Morgan J P, Wind A, Davidson A P (1999) Bone dysplasias in the labrador retriever - a radiographic study. JAAHA 35 (4), 332-340 PubMed.
  • Morgan J P (1999) Transitional lumbosacral vertebral anomaly in the dog: a radiographic study. JSAP 40 (4), 167-172 PubMed.
  • Herling A, Loeffler K, Schimke E (1998) Anomalies of the pelvic girdle at the caudal end of the sacroiliac joint in the dogs. Kleintierpraxis 43 (11), 807-812 VetMedResource.
  • Schultz V A, Watson A G (1995) Lumbosacral transitional vertebra and thoracic limb malformations in a Chihuahua puppy. JAAHA 31 (2), 101-106 PubMed.
  • Mattoon J S & Koblick P D (1993) Quantitative survey radiographic evaluation of the lumbosacral spine of normal dogs and dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 34 (3), 194-206 VetMedResource.
  • Morgan J P et al (1993) Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae as a predisposing cause of cauda equina syndrome in German shepherd dogs - 161 cases (1987-1990). JAVMA 202 (11), 1877-1882 PubMed.

Related Images

Want more related items, why not
contact us

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code