Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Trachea: stenosis

Contributor(s): Simon Tappin

Introduction

  • Rarely congenital; more commonly acquired, iatrogenic, eg pressure necrosis secondary to intubation or scarring after tracheal surgery; or secondary to granulation tissue after external contusive or avulsive injury, eg road traffic injury or high rise trauma; or neoplastic with narrowing due to the presence of a tracheal mass.
  • Signs: dyspnea and cough, severe exercise intolerance, respiratory stridor.
  • Diagnosis: auscultation, palpation, plain radiography, endoscopy (with great care).
  • Treatment: minor stenoses by bougeniage or balloon catheter dilation under endoscopic or fluoroscopic guidance. Severe or recurrent lesions may require intraluminal stent placement or surgical resection and end-to-end anastomosis.
  • Prognosis: fair short-term prognosis with stent placement; some stenosis at repair site is inevitable after surgery.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Trauma.
  • Postsurgical.
  • Congenital.
  • Neoplastic.

Pathophysiology

  • Stenotic lesions of the trachea arise primarily as the result of acquired injuries, eg pressure necrosis secondary to intubation, penetrating wounds, scarring after tracheotomy Tracheostomy: temporary or following other tracheal surgery.
  • Neoplasia will lead to tracheal narowing.
  • Rarely, it may arise congenitally.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Culp W T N, Weisse C, Cole G & Solomon J A (2007) Intraluminal tracheal stenting for treatment of tracheal narrowing in three cats. Vet Surg 36 (2), 107-113 PubMed.
  • White R A S & Kellagher R E B (1986) Tracheal resection and anastomosis for congenital stenosis in a dog. JSAP 27 (2), 61-67 VetMedResource.


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