Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Trachea: collapse

Contributor(s): Richard B Ford, Simon Tappin

Introduction

  • Cause: chondrodystrophy and failure of tracheal rings to maintain a functional lumen. May be acquired or congenital.
  • Signs: paroxysmal coughing.
  • Diagnosis: radiography, endoscopy, fluoroscopy.
  • Treatment: long-term medication alone gives adequate control in many cases. Surgery to place extra-tracheal rings or intra-luminal stent placement if collapse leads to hypoxia.
  • Prognosis: fair to poor.
    Print off the owner factsheet on Collapsing trachea Collapsing trachea to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Predisposing factors

General

Pathophysiology

  • Tracheal collapse occurs as the result of chondrodystrophy and failure of the tracheal rings to maintain a normal lumen.
  • Flattening of trachea → respiratory obstruction on expiration.
  • Abnormal tracheal cartilage:
    • Flattening of cartilage rings.
    • Redundant dorsal tracheal membrane.
  • Some dogs lack chondroitin sulfate and glycosaminoglycan in the tracheal cartilage → decreased water binding within the cartilage → cartilage weakening.
  • Abnormal chondrocyte function occurs in some dogs.
  • Weakening of the tracheal cartilage → progressive flattening → reduction in the dorsoventral diameter → the dorsal ligament becomes elongated and flaccid.
  • Intrathoracic tracheal collapse is manifest during exhalation.
  • Extrathoracic (cervical), tracheal collapse is manifest during inhalation.

Timecourse

  • Chronic - months to years.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Moritz A, Schneider M & Bauer N (2004) Management of advanced tracheal collapse in dogs using intraluminal self-expanding biliary wall stents. JVIM 18 (1), 31-42 PubMed.
  • Buback J L, Boothe H W & Hobson H P (1996) Surgical treatment of tracheal collapse in dogs - 90 cases (1983-1993). JAVMA 208 (3), 380-4 PubMed.
  • White R A S & Williams J M (1994) Tracheal collapse in the dog - is there a role for surgery? A survey of 100 cases. JSAP 35 (4), 191-96 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Sura P A & Durant A M (2012)Tracheal collapse.In:Veterinary Surgery Small Animal.Eds K M Tobias & S A Johnston. St Louis, Elsevier, Saunders, pp 1746-1750.
  • Herrtage M E (2009)Medical management of tracheal collapse.In:Kirk's Current Veterinary therapy XIV. Eds: J D Bonagura and D C Twedt. Philadelphia: W B Saunders, Chapter 144, pp 630-635.
  • Weisse C W C (2009)Intraluminal stenting for tracheal collapse.In:Kirk's Current Veterinary Therapy XIV. Eds J D Bonagura & D C Twedt. Chapter 145, pp 635-641.


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