Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Tonsil: squamous cell carcinoma

Synonym(s): SCC

Contributor(s): Jane Dobson

Introduction

  • Less common than the gingival form.
  • Usually unilateral.
  • Progress rapidly to invade pharyngeal wall and soft palate Squamous cell carcinoma tonsillar.
  • Signs: acutely painful, dysphagia.
  • Diagnosis: signs, biopsy.
  • Prognosis: poor - therapy unrewarding.
  • High metastatic rate to local lymph nodes; more than 50% metastasize to the lungs.

Pathogenesis

Predisposing factors

General
  • Implied association with environmental pollutants.

Pathophysiology

  • Usually commence as a unilateral, hard, nodular enlargement → plaque-like ulcer or large irregular mass → diffuse infiltration of local tissue → rapid spread to local lymph nodes (mandibular, retropharyngeal) producing gross node enlargement → prescapular lymph node → thorax/liver/spleen/heart/kidney metastases.
  • Occasional secondary hypertrophic osteopathy.
  • Occasional metastatic spread to the thyroid gland.
  • Primary usually small → secondary regional lymph nodes/thyroid → venous access → generalized metastatic disease → occasional hypertrophic osteopathy.

Timecourse

  • 2 months.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Murphy S, Hayes A, Adams V, Maglennon G, Neath P, Ladlow J & Brearley M J (2006) Role of carboplatin in multi-modality treatment of canine tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma - a case series of five dogs. JSAP 47 (4), 216-220 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Withrow S J & MacEwen E G (1996)Small Animal Clinical Oncology. 2nd edition. Philadelphia: W B Saunders. ISBN 0 7216 5592 0 (Useful up-to-date reference; starting point).
  • Slatter D (1993)Textbook of Small Animal Surgery. 2nd edition. Philadelphia: W B Saunders. ISBN 0 7216 8329 0. Volume II, section 16 - comprehensive section on all aspects of oncology, including radiotherapy.


ADDED