Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Testicle: neoplasia

Contributor(s): Daniel Smeak

Introduction

  • 5% of all canine tumors, (2nd most common solid tumor).
  • Usually >10 years, (unless retained testicle leads to neoplasia in younger animal).
  • Three main types: Sertoli cell (SCT), interstitial cell (ICT), seminoma (SEM).
  • Testicular location has significant bearing on incidence and type of tumor. (A combination of 2 or more tumors in the testis is common.)
  • Secondaries occasionally seen.
  • Treatment: bilateral castration.
  • Prognosis: varies with tumor type/timing of surgery, (most are benign).

Pathogenesis

Pathophysiology


Sertoli cell tumors
  • Have greatest potential for malignancy of all testicular tumors.
  • Paraneoplastic syndrome, associated with hyperestrogenism, consists of one or more of the following:
    • Aplastic anemia.
    • Alopecia.
    • Gynecomastia.
    • Attraction of male dogs.

    Seminoma
  • Usually found in scrotal area.
  • Can be functional and secrete estrogen or androgens.
  • Can result in:
    • Prostatic enlargement.
    • Perianal adenomas.

    Interstitial cell tumors
  • Derived from Leydig cells of the testicle Testicle: interstitial cell tumor 01 Testicle: interstitial cell tumor 02.
  • Elevation in testosterone concentrations can contribute to development of:
    • Prostatic enlargement.
    • Perineal hernia.
    • Perineal adenoma.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Dhaliwal R S, Kitchell B E, Knight B L, Schmidt B R (1999) Treatment of aggressive testicular tumors in 4 dogs. JAAHA 35 (4), 311-318 PubMed.
  • Archbald L I, Waldow D, Gelatt K (1997) Intestinal cell tumor. JAVMA 210 (10), 1423-1424 PubMed.
  • Dahlbom M, Mäkinen A, Suominen J (1997) Testicular fine needle aspiration cytology as a diagnostic tool in dog fertility. JSAP 38 (11), 506-512 PubMed.
  • England G C (1995) Ultrasonographic diagnosis of non-palpable Sertoli cell tumors in infertile dogs. JSAP 36 (11), 476-480 PubMed.
  • Looijenga L H et al (1994) Seminomas of the canine testis. Counterpart of spermatocytic seminoma of men? Lab Invest 71 (4), 490-496 PubMed.
  • Patnaik A K, Mostofi F K (1993) A clinicopathologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical study of mixed germ cell-stromal tumors of the testis in 16 dogs. Vet Pathol 30 (3), 287-295 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Flanders J A, Schlafer D H & Yeager A E (2000)diseases of the canine testis.In:Current Veterinary TherapyEd J Bonagura. Philadelphia: W B Saunders Co. pp 941-947,


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