ISSN 2398-2969      

Systemic lupus erythematosus

icanis
Contributor(s):

Lisa Moore

David Godfrey

Synonym(s): SLE


Introduction

  • Rare, idiopathic multisystemic disease.
  • Cause: autoimmunity and immune complex hypersensitivity.
  • Signs: pyrexia, variable skin lesions but often symmetric and may involve the mouth, non-erosive inflammatory polyarthritis (+ other signs - anemia, spontaneous bleeding, renal failure, neuropathy, body cavity fuid).
    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is easily overdiagnosed because of the diversity of possible clinical presentations.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • The disease characteristics have followed those used in man.
  • Three sets of three factors have been considered to be important but all working at different levels and in different time frames to cause the development of the extremely variable clinical and pathological changes.
  • Etiology (genetic, hormonal and environemental factors)
  • Etiopathogenesis (T-cell dysfunction, polyclonal B-cell activation, cytokine activity)
  • Pathogenesis (immune complex-mediated organ damage, direct antibody damage, malfunctioning antibodies).

Pathophysiology

  • The presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies (ANA) Anti-nuclear antibody is an important feature of this disease. ANA is a collective term for a group of antibodies to a variety of cell nuclear antigens, including those to double stranded DNA, single stranded DNA, histones and other nuclear proteins.
  • Immune complexes formed from the reaction of these antigens with ANA are deposited in many tissues throughout the body, and tissue damage may ensue as a result of Type 3 (immune complex) hypersensitivity.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Smee N M, Harkin K R, Wilkerson M J (2007) Measurement of serum antinuclear antibody titer in dogs with and without systemic lupus erythematosus 120 cases (1997-2005). JAVMA 230 (8), 1180-1183 PubMed
  • Chabanne L, Fournel C, Rigal D, Monier J C (1999) Canine systemic lupus erythematosus. Part II. Diagnosis and treatment. Compend Clin Educ Pract Vet 21 (5), 402-410 VetMedResource.
  • Lewis D T (1998) Life threatening dermatoses in dogs. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 20 (3), 271-283 VetMedResource.
  • Carlotti D (1989) Autoimmune mediated skin diseases. JSAP 30 (4), 223-227 VetMedResource.

Other soucrces

  • Miller W H, Griffin C E & Campbell K L (2013) Systemic lupus erythematosus in the dog. Muller & Kirk’s Small Animal Dermatology 7th edition. Elsevier, St Louis. pp 455-459.

Related Images

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Abdominal organomegaly

Anemia: immune mediated hemolytic

Anemia: non-regenerative

Anti-nuclear antibody

Anti-platelet antibody

Arthritis: borrelial

Arthritis: immune-mediated

Arthritis: non-erosive

Arthritis: polyarthritis - Greyhound

Arthritis: polyarthritis - idiopathic

Arthritis: rheumatoid

Auranofin

Aurothiomalate

Azathioprine

Biopsy: skin

Blood biochemistry: creatine phosphokinase

Cerebrospinal fluid: cytology

Cerebrospinal fluid: sampling

Cutaneous mucinosis

Cutaneous vasculitis

Cyclophosphamide

Direct Coombs' test

Ear: otitis externa

German Shepherd Dog

Glomerulonephritis

Hematology: platelet count

Hemoglobinuria

Hepatocutaneous syndrome

Idiopathic polymyositis

Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia

Immunofluorescent antibody tests

Leishmaniosis

Lymphadenopathy

Metatarsal fistulation

Pleural: effusion

Polyarthritis / polymyositis syndrome

Prednisolone

Renal function assessment

Skin: adverse drug reactions

Skin: bacterial skin disease - overview

Skin: bullous pemphigoid

Skin: cold agglutinin disease

Skin: demodectic mange

Skin: dermatophytosis

Skin: discoid lupus erythematosus

Skin: ear margin hyperkeratosis

Skin: epidermolysis bullosa

Skin: epitheliotropic lymphoma

Skin: erythema multiforme

Skin: exfoliative cutaneous lupus erythematosus

Skin: familial dermatomyositis

Skin: immunological disease - overview

Skin: nasodigital hyperkeratosis

Skin: panniculitis

Skin: pemphigus erythematosus

Skin: pemphigus foliaceus

Skin: pemphigus vulgaris

Skin: pigmentary disorders

Skin: toxic epidermal necrolysis

Skin: vesicular cutaneous lupus erythematosus

Spleen: neoplasia

Synovial fluid: sampling

Therapeutics: glucocorticoids

Thrombocytopenia

Urinalysis: protein

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