Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Stomach: chronic gastritis

Introduction

  • Chronic inflammatory changes in gastric mucosa with concurrent signs of gastric disease.
  • Cause: rarely determined, thought to include:
    • Immune-mediated disease.
    • Foreign body reactions - hypertrophic change.
    • Gastrinoma.
    • Spiral organisms (Helicobacter).
    • Dietary factors.
    • Viral infection.
    • Parasitism.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Usually not determined.
  • Dietary.
  • Ingested material causing mucosal damage, eg drugs, toxins, dietary constituents.
  • Biliary reflux.
  • Secondary to neoplasia and ulceration.
  • Auto-immune, eg chronic atrophic gastritis.
  • Foreign body migration.
  • Spiral bacteria (Helicobacter) - very controversial.
  • Parasitism.
  • May be extension of small intestinal and/or colonic disease.

Pathophysiology

  • Immune-mediated response to luminal antigen → dietary factors.
  • Varying damage to mucosa in non-ulcerative and ulcerative forms.
  • Varying accumulations of lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils and occasionally neutrophils occur.
  • Hypertrophic: under influence of excessive gastrin stimulation.
  • Atrophic considered end-stage with loss of all gastric glands.
  • Varying degrees of fibrosis are associated with severity and duration of disease.
  • Ulceration most common with eosinophilic gastritis.
  • Secondary gastric hypomotility due to inflammation.

Timecourse

  • Chronic atrophic gastritis may be end-stage of superficial gastritis and take months to years to develop.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Burrows C F (1996)Gastric disease.In: Manual of canine and feline gastroenterology.BSAVACheltenham. pp 90-113.


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