Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Stomach: acute gastritis

Contributor(s): Ken Harkin, Rance Sellon, James Simpson

Introduction

  • Acute inflammation of the gastric mucosa with variable disruption of the gastric mucosal barrier.
  • Cause: ingestion of irritant substances, drugs, dietary factors, foreign body, possibly infectious agents.
  • Signs: anorexia, vomiting, dehydration, anterior abdominal pain.
  • Diagnosis: history, signs, radiography.
  • Treatment: fluid therapy if needed, metoclopramide, sucralfate, cimetidine.
  • Prognosis: usually good but depends on underlying cause.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Ingestion of irritant substances such as:
    • Acids.
    • Alkalis.
    • Corrosives.
  • Drugs, such as aspirin and other NSAIDs, corticosteroids.
  • Dietary factors including overeating and eating contaminated foods.
  • Foreign body.
  • Helicobacter Helicobacter spp infection remains controversial.
  • Parasites, eg Physaloptera, are occasional causes.
  • Viral agents may be involved.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Indiscriminate eating behavior.

Pathophysiology

  • Acute inflammation → disordered gastric motility → delayed gastric outflow and vomition.
  • Acute gastritis is common in dogs compared with cats due to the latters' fastidious eating habits.
  • Etiological agent damages gastric mucosal barrier.
  • Inflammation follows with stimulation of submucosal mast cells and histamine release.
  • Histamine stimulates hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen secretion.
  • Excess acid and pepsin → further inflammation.
  • Persistence of the vicious cycle → gastric ulceration.
  • Inflammation stimulates afferent nerves with inputs to the vomiting center in the medulla.
  • Inflammation may also contribute to increases in intragastric pressure → vomition.

Timecourse

  • Hours to days.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Thomas D, Simpson W & Hall E J (1996)Manual of canine and feline gastroenterology.Eds. BSAVA, Cheltenham.
  • Simpson J W & Else R W (1991)Digestive disease in the dog and cat.Eds. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.


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