Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Skin: transmissible venereal tumor (TVT)

Synonym(s): Sticker's sarcoma

Contributor(s): Joseph Harari, David Scarff, Antonio Guiliano, Jane Dobson

Introduction

  • Rare to common (geographic location is important), exophytic proliferation of external genitalia and occasionally skin, oral, nasal and conjunctival cavity.
  • Transmitted at coitus from either sex and occasionally by licking, scratching and biting trauma.
  • Endemic in southern USA, South/Central America and southern Europe (countries with high percentage of stray dogs). 
  • Affects glans, body and bulb of penis, prepuce, scrotum, lips, nose and skin.
  • Signs: preputial, vaginal bleeding/discharge, phimosis or paraphimosis.
  • Treatment: chemotherapy/radiotherapy.
  • Prognosis: often good due to spontaneous/chemotherapy/radiotherapy related resolution. Metastasis are rare (around 5%), but immunocompromised patients could have increased risks of metastases and/or lack/delayed disease regression.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Has an abnormal karyotype (59 +/- 5 instead of 78 chromosomes).
  • Transmission via exfoliation and transplantation of tumor cells from an affected dog to another across abraded mucosa during coitus, licking or scratching.
  • Transplanted (non-host) cells transmitted at coitus.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Sexual promiscuity.
  • Poor health or immunosuppression predisposes to metastasis.

Pathophysiology

  • A venereally and traumatically implantable transmissible neoplasm.
  • Also metastatic (metastasis uncommon).
  • Histogenesis obscure.
  • Coitus → transplanted (non-host) cells → affects glans, body and bulb of penis, prepuce, scrotum, lips, nose and skin → metastasis (uncommon) to regional nodes and viscera.

Timecourse

  • Regression may occur in approximately 6 months.

Epidemiology

  • Venereally and traumatically transmissible (licking, biting, scratching).

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Ganguly B, Das U, Das A K (2016) Canine transmissable venereal tumor: a review. Vet Comp Oncol 14 (1), 1-12 PubMed.
  • Rogers K S (1997) Transmissible venereal tumor. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 19 (9), 1036-1045 VetMedResource.
  • Brown N O, Calvert C, MacEwen E G (1980) Chemotherapeutic management of transmissable venereal tumors in 30 dogs. JAVMA 176 (10 Pt 1), 983-986 PubMed.


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