Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Skin: sarcoptic mange

Contributor(s): Karen Campbell, David Scarff, David Godfrey

Introduction

  • Cause: mite Sarcoptes scabiei Sarcoptes scabiei ; highly contagious to Canidae and humans (and many other mammals).
  • Signs: pruritus, self-trauma (especially at predilection sites - hocks, elbows, pinnae, sternum).
  • Diagnosis: pruritus, papules and crusting.
  • Treatment: isoxazolines, imidacloprid, selamectin, lime sulfur dip, oral ivermectin, oral milbemycin.
  • Prognosis: excellent - guarded if systemically ill.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

  • Contact with other dogs or with fox carcases or fox dens

Pathophysiology

  • Infection causes a pruritic reaction that is initially in relation to the number of mites.
  • A hypersensitivity reaction can occur that hightens the pruritus.
  • Some dogs will self cure after a few months.
  • Some will develop a life-threatening dermatosis. 

Epidemiology

  • Transmitted via direct contact, indirect contact and fomites.
  • Entire lifecycle on host Lifecycle Sarcoptes scabiei - diagram.
  • Adult mite tunnels through epidermis → eggs and feces → reaction.
  • Wild canids are reservoir of infection (foxes, especially in urban situation).

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Beugnet F, de Vos C, Liebenberg J et al (2016) Efficacy of afoxolaner in a clinical field study in dogs naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei. Parasite 23, 26 PubMed.
  • Taenzler J, Liebenberg J, Rainer K A et al (2016) Efficacy of flualaner administered either orally or topically for the treatment of naturally acquired Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis infestation in dogs. Parasite Vectors 9 (1), 392 PubMed.
  • Paradis M (1998) Ivermectin in small animal dermatology Part II. Extralabel applications. Comp Cont Ed Prac Vet 20 (4), 459-469 VetMedResource.
  • Foley R H (1991) Parasitic mites of dogs and cats. Comp Cont Ed Prac Vet 13 (5), 783-800 VetMedResource.
  • Schmeitzel L P (1988) Cheyletiellosis and scabies. Vet Clin North Am 18 (5), 1069-1076 PubMed.
  • Smith E K (1988) How to detect common skin mites through skin scrapings. Vet Med 83 (2), 165-170 VetMedResource.

Other sources

  • Miller W H Jr, Griffin C E & Campbell K L (2013) Canine scabies. In: Muller and Kirk's Small Animal Dermatology. 7th editionW B Saunders, Philadelphia. pp 315-319.


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