ISSN 2398-2969      

Skin: mycotic disease

icanis

Synonym(s): Systemic mycosis


Introduction

  • Rare disease in UK.
  • Occurs in North and Central America, and Africa.
  • Cause: systemic infection → secondary skin lesions (less commonly organisms are directly inoculated into skin resulting in primary skin lesions).
  • Signs: systemic symptoms in conjunction with skin lesions.
  • Diagnosis: cytology, PCR, histopathology, serology.
  • Treatment: responds to systemic antifungal therapy.
  • Prognosis: often good - depends on severity and appropriate treatment of disease.

Pathogenesis

Predisposing factors

General
  • Immunocompromised animals most susceptible, however, majority of affected animals are otherwise healthy.
  • Sources of exposure:
    • Sporotrichosis Sporotrichosis : saprophyte of plants, often inoculated via skin penetrating thorn.
    • Blastomyocis: found in moist acidic soil, decaying wood, animal feces, construction sites near water/old swamps; United States river valleys.
    • Histoplasmosis - United States river valleys, nitrogen rich soil (bird or bat excreta).
    • Coccidiomycosis: sandy alkaline soil, high environmental temperature, low rainfall, low elevation, Southwest United States, Mexico, Central and South America, dust storms and earthquakes are precipitating events.
    • Cryptococcosis: found in pigeon droppings, trees, fruits and soil.
    • Zygomycosis: fungi found in soil and decaying vegetation, include fungi in the order Mucorales and Entomorphthorales (species occasionally affecting animals includeBasidiobolusandConidiobolus).

Pathophysiology

  • Precise pathology varies with species of fungi involved.
  • Infection usually by inhalation → infection of internal organs → secondary skin lesions by hematogenous spread.
  • Some diseases may be acquired by oral ingestion or direct inocculation into skin wounds.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Vorathavorn VI, Sykes J E, Feldman D G (2013) Cryptococcosis as an emerging systemic mycosis in dogs. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 23 (5), 489-497 PubMed.
  • Kirsch E J et al (2012) Evaluation of Coccidioides antigen detection in dogs witrh coccidioidomycosis. Clin Vaccine Immunol 19 (3), 343-345 PubMed.
  • Lester S J, Malik R, Bartlett K H, Duncan C G (2011) Cryptococcosis: update and emergence of Cryptococcosis gattii. Vet Clin Pathol 40 (1), 4-17 PubMed.
  • Miranda L M et al (2011) Evaluation of immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of sporotrichosis in dogs. Vet J 190 (3), 408-411 PubMed.
  • Werner A, Norton F (2011) Blastomycosis. Compend Contin Educ Vet 33 (8), E1-4, quiz E5 PubMed.
  • Kerl M E (2003) Update on canine and feline fungal diseases. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 33 (4), 721-747 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Miller W H, Griffin G E, Campbell K L (2013)Muller and Kirk's Small Animal Dermatology.7th edn. St Louis, Elsevier, pp 223-283.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code