ISSN 2398-2969      

Skin: burn / scald

icanis

Introduction

  • Cause:
    • Chemical.
    • Electrical current.
    • Solar and microwave radiation.
    • Thermal (flames, hot materials and liquids).
  • Signs: necrosis and coagulation of tissues. Severity depends on depth of damage.
  • Diagnosis: history, signs.
  • Treatment: wound management, fluid therapy, antimicrobials. Surgical resection may be necessary.
  • Prognosis: good unless burn is deep and extensive.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Chemicals - especially concentrated bleach, caustics, acids, disinfectants, etc.
  • Electric current Electrocution.
  • Solar or microwave radiation.
  • Flames; hot metal or liquids.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Debility.

Specific

  • Exposure to source of heat, radiation or electric current.
  • If in toxic shock, eg under surgery for pyometra, may be more susceptible to thermal injury - need care with heated pad, even if thermostatically controlled.
  • Alopecia increases risk of solar damage especially nasal and flank/dorsal alopecia.

Pathophysiology

  • Chemical/electrical/thermal injury to surface of skin -> necrosis of epidermis and deeper tissues.
  • Damage proportional to:
    • Length of exposure and temperature in thermal injury.
    • Concentration of chemical.
  • Coagulation necrosis of epidermis and deeper tissues.
  • Partial thickness → damage to epidermis only - may heal without scarring if appropriate therapy is given.
  • Full thickness → all skin structures are destroyed, including innervation and adnexae (especially hair follicles). Resultant scar tissue will be insensitive and alopecic.
  • Leads to necrosis -> fluid loss and sepsis -> death.

Timecourse

  • Damage may be instantaneous; extent may take time to tell.
  • A partial thickness burn may be extended to a full thickness injury if sepsis occurs.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Joubert K (1998) Ketamine hydrochloride - an adjunct for analgesia in dogs with burn wounds. J S Afr Vet Assoc 69 (3), 95-97 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Piscopo S (1999)Thermal Burns.Vet Forum. pp 36-48.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code