ISSN 2398-2969      

Scapula: fracture

icanis

Introduction

  • Cause: fractures of the canine scapula are uncommon, estimated to account for 0.5-2.4% of all fractures. They typically occur as a result of blunt trauma, usually a road traffic accident, fall, possibly a dog bite.  
  • Signs: acute onset, forelimb lameness is the most common presentation. Swelling or abnormal contour in the region of the scapula may be visible.   
  • Fractures can be divided into regions:   
    • Scapula body +/- spine. 
    • Scapula neck. 
    • Glenoid fractures. 
    • Supraglenoid tuberosity avulsion fractures. 
  • Treatment: conservative management for many non-articular, mildly displaced, proximal or body fractures. As the scapula is surrounded by and attached to multiple large muscles, ie supraspinatus, infraspinatus, serratus ventralis, subscapularis; depending on the fracture configuration, these can keep the fractured scapula relatively stable and minimally displaced.  
  • Surgical treatment should be considered for articular, distal, displaced and unstable fractures or those involving the supraglenoid tubercle, ie the apophyseal origin of the biceps brachii muscle. 
  • Prognosis: when managed appropriately the prognosis for scapular neck and body fractures is good, is moderate for supraglenoid tuberosity fractures, and can be more guarded for articular fractures, including comminuted ones.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Trauma.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource
  • Acquaviva A E, Miller E I, Eisenmann D J, Stone R T, Kraus K H (2021) Biomechanical testing of locking and nonlocking plates in the canine scapula. J Am Anim Hosp 48(6), 372-278 PubMed
  • Kulendra E R, Beer A J C, Hockley G C A, Goh D, Lafuente P, Perry K L (2019) Outcome of Supraglenoid Tubercle Fractures in 12 Dogs. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 32(4), 341-350 PubMed.  
  • McCartney W T, Garvan C B (2008) Muscle separation approach to scapular neck fractures in eight dogs. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 21(5), 471-473 PubMed
  • Mair J J, Belkoff S M, Boudrieau R J (2003) An ex vivo mechanical evaluation of single versus double semitubular plate fixation of a transverse distal-third scapular osteotomy in the dog. Vet Surg 32(6), 580-564 PubMed.   
  • Cook J L, Cook C R, Tomlinson J L, Millis D L, Starost M, Albrecht M A, Payne J T (1997) Scapular fractures in dogs: epidemiology, classification, and concurrent injuries in 105 cases (1988-1994). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 33(6), 528-532 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Rayward R (2016) The scapula. In: BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Fracture Repair and Management. Eds Gemmill T & Clements D, BSAVA publishing, Chapter 19. ISBN: 978-1-905-31968-8 
  • DeCamp C E (2016) The scapula. In: Brinker, Piermattei and Flo’s Handbook of Small Animal Othopedics and Fracture Repair, 5th edn, Chapter 9. Eds DeCamp C E, Johnston S A, Dejardin L M, Schaefer S L, Elsevier Inc. ISBN: 978-1-4377-2364-9. 

 

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