Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Salmonellosis

Contributor(s): Ken Harkin, Bryn Tennant

Introduction

  • Subclinical infection most common, clinical disease relatively uncommon.
  • Zoonosis. Possible dog-human transmission, especially to young, elderly or immunosuppressed.
  • CauseSalmonellaspp.
  • Signs: subclinical (asymptomatic); enterocolitis, bacteremia.
  • Diagnosis: bacterial isolation; fecal analysis.
  • Treatment: symptomatic - use of antibiotics confined to severe cases.
  • Prognosis: good - in self-limiting disease; poor - bacteremic cases and chronic carriers, euthanasia recommended.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Salmonellaspp Salmonella spp , most commonly S. typhimurium or S. enteritidis.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Suppressed immune system.
  • Unhygienic, crowded conditions.
  • Stress.

Specific

  • Infected foodstuffs improperly cooked are a common source of infection.
  • Contamination of food by rodents, insects, birds.

Pathophysiology

  • Ingestion of organism → pharyngeal lymphoid tissue, small intestine (usually the ileum) , colon (also possibly lymph nodes, liver and spleen) → invasion of epithelial cells → inflammatory response → enterocolitis.
  • Bacteremia, secretory diarrhea by enterotoxin and endotoxemia can also occur.
  • Shedding of organism occurs for 3-6 weeks depending on organism and host response, carrier state may establish after 3-4 weeks.

Timecourse

  • 3-5 days following ingestion of contaminated food.
  • Following stress in carrier animals.

Epidemiology

  • Salmonella in contaminated food or water → ingestion → transmitted dog to dog.
  • Risk of ensuing disease depends on age, immune status, size of inoculum.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Beran G W (1993) Zoonoses in practice. Vet Clin North Am 23 (5), 1085-1107 PubMed.
  • King J M (1985) Intestinal salmonellosis. Vet Med 83 (8), 765 VetMedResource.


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