ISSN 2398-2969      

Retina: hemorrhage

icanis

Introduction

  • Retinal hemorrhage may be a sign of (or sequel to) concurrent intraocular diseases. Alternatively it may be an indication of a systemic bleeding disorder.
  • Cause:
  • Signs: intra-retinal, subretinal or pre-retinal hemorrhage.
  • Diagnosis: ophthalmoscopy.
  • Treatment: treat underlying cause.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Trauma, local (intraocular) disease or systemic disease leading to retinal hemorrhage.

Predisposing factors

General

Specific

  • Breed if inherited ocular disease.

Pathophysiology

  • Retinal hemorrhage may occur because of:
    • Congenital retinal blood vessel abnormalities (such as vitreo retinal blood vessel loops in collie eye anomaly Collie eye anomaly ).
    • Blunt or penetrating ocular traum leading to traumatic hemorrhage.
    • Chorioretinal inflammation (posterior uveitis, eg secondary to infectious, immune-mediated or neoplastic causes).
    • Chronic intraocular disease such as glaucoma, lens luxation, retinal detachment or intraocular neoplasis, leading to development of pre-iridal fibrovascular membranes, which are associated with increased blood vessel fragility.
    • A systemic bleeding disorder such as thrombocytopenia or thrombocytopathia as listed above Retinal hemorrhage Cocker Spaniel 6 years.
    • Systemic hypertension Retinal hemorrhage Crossbred 6 years Hypertension.
    • Choroidal and retinal neoplasia (particularly metastatic tumors).
  • Diabetes mellitus leading to diabetic retinopathy Retinal hemorrhage Standard Poodle 8 years Diabetic retinopathy.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Leiva M, Naranjo C, Peña M T (2005) Ocular signs of canine monocytic erhlichiosis: a retrospective study in dogs from Barcelona, Spain. Vet Ophthalmol (6), 387-393 PubMed.
  • Landry M P, Herring I P, Panciera D L (2004) Fundoscopic findings following cataract extraction by means of phacoemulsification in diabetic dogs: 52 cases (1993-2003). JAVMA 225 (5), 709-716 PubMed.
  • Zeiss C J & Dubielzig R R (2004) A morphologic study of intravitreal membranes associated with intraocular hemorrhage in the dog. Vet Ophthalmol 7 (4), 239-243 PubMed.
  • Sansom J & Bodey A (1997) Ocular signs in four dogs with hypertension. Vet Rec 140 (23), 593-598 PubMed.
  • Gwin R M, Gelatt K N, Terrell T G & Hood C I (1978) Hypertensive retinopathy associated with hyperthyroidism, hypercholesterolemia and renal failure in the dog. JAAHA 14 (2), 200-209 ResearchGate.
  • Rubin L (1975) Ocular manifestations of arteriosclerosis and hypertension in dogs. Sci Proc Am Coll Vet Ophthal 6, 58-68.

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