ISSN 2398-2969      

Retention of fetal membranes and fetus

icanis
Contributor(s):

Synonym(s): Retained placenta / fetus


Introduction

  • Cause: failure of expulsion of fetal membranes during third stage of labor. Fetal membranes usually follows birth of each puppy but several may be expelled at once because puppies may be born from one horn before some fetal membranes have left the contralateral horn.
  • Unusual problem, but true prevalence unknown.
  • Suspect if there is a copious, dark greenish vulvar discharge 24 h post-partum.
  • Most bitches do well despite retention of one or more fetal membranes; some affected bitches, however, will need treatment to prevent toxemia, metritis and death.
  • Treatment: antibiotics, ecbolics (oxytocin, PGF2alpha).
  • Conservative management usually successful.
  • Hysterectomy essential if conservative management fails.
  • Occasionally dead fetus retained as well.
  • Prognosis: good for life and future fertility.

Pathogenesis

Pathophysiology

  • Little is known of the pathogenesis in dogs.
  • May be an association with large litters ( → prolonged parturition → secondary uterine inertia); or fetal oversize (single puppy → dystocia Dystocia → secondary uterine inertia).
  • Hypocalcemia Hypocalcemia could predispose to condition because of relative uterine inertia.
  • Metritis may rapidly ensue → toxemia.

Timecourse

  • Diagnosed and resolved within the first week after whelping.

Epidemiology

  • Unknown.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references fromPubMed.
  • Grundy S A, Davidson A P (2004)Theriogenology question of the month. Acute metritis secondary to retained fetal membranes and a retained nonviable fetus.JAVMA224(6), 844-847PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Johnston S D, Root-Kustriz M V, Olson P N S (2001)Canine and Feline Theriogenology.Philadelphia, W B Saunders Co.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code