Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Raisin poisoning

Synonym(s): Vitis Vinifera, Grape, Raisin, Sultana

Contributor(s): Alexander Campbell, Patricia Talcott

Introduction

  • All fruit products ofVitis vinifera(a perennial woody climbing vine) should be considered potentially toxic to dogs. Anecdotal evidence of poisoning exists in cats, but this has not been well documented.
  • Signs: gastrointestinal effects, anorexia, and lethargy. In many cases renal failure characterized by oliguria or anuria, and accompanying elevation in levels of calcium, phosphorus, urea and creatinine.
  • Diagnosis: signs and case history.
  • Treatment: no antidote. Gastric decontamination, aggressive fluid therapy and supportive management.
  • Prognosis: fatal cases are common, particularly in animals that develop oliguria or anuria.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Ingestion of plant fruits.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Dogs appear particularly susceptible to ingestion of fruits of this plant. The dried fruits (raisins, sultanas) would appear more toxic, though data is limited.

Pathophysiology

  • Toxic principle and thus, mechanism of action has not been established.
  • Toxin would appear not to be confined to seeds, as seedless varieties have caused clinical effects.
  • Severe toxicity and fatalities have been reported from ingested doses as low as 11.5g fruit per kg body weight. There is no apparent dose-response relationship between the exposure dose and the development of renal lesions.

Timecourse

  • Onset of signs is variable, although gastrointestinal signs are usually apparent within 6 hours.
  • Signs of renal impairment or failure are usually apparent between 24 and 72 hours.
  • Full recovery, if it occurs, may take 3 weeks or more.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Sutton N M, Bates N & Campbell A (2009) Factors influencing outcome of Vitis vinifera (grapes, raisins, currants and sultanas) intoxication in dog. Vet Rec 164 (14), 430-431 PubMed.
  • Eubig P A, Brady M S, Gwaltney-Brant S M, Khan S A, Mazzaferro E M & Morrow C M (2005) Acute renal failure in dogs after the ingestion of grapes or raisins: a retrospective evaluation of 43 dogs (1992-2002). J Vet Intern Med 19 (5), 663-674 PubMed.
  • Morrow C M, Valli V E, Volmer P A & Eubig P A (2005) Canine renal pathology associated with grape or raisin ingestion: 10 cases. J Vet Diagn Invest 17 (3), 223-231 PubMed.
  • Campbell A & Bates N (2003) Raisin poisoning in dogs. Vet Rec 152 (12), 376 PubMed.
  • Penny D, Henderson S M & Brown P J (2003) Raisin poisoning in a dog. Vet Rec 152 (10), 308 PubMed.
  • Gwaltney-Brant S et al (2001) Renal failure associated with ingestion of grapes or raisins in dogs. JAVMA 218 (10), 1555-1556 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Means C (2002) The wrath of grapes ASPCA Animal Watch. 22(2) (available on http://www.aspca.org).

Organisation(s)


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