Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Prostate: neoplasia

Contributor(s): Laura Garrett, Isabelle Desmas-Bazelle

Introduction

  • Uncommon.
  • Spontaneous cancer.
  • Average age: 10 years.
  • More common in neutered dogs.
  • Usually advanced before presented.
  • Signs: pain on defecating/urinating; hindlimb locomotor/neurological signs.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs, biopsy.
  • Treatment: poor efficacy, rarely indicated because of metastasis.
  • Prognosis: extremely poor because of early dissemination and absence of response to treatment.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown.
  • Androgen dependent.
  • High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) - a precursor of human prostatic cancer - has been detected in dogs without prostatic disease and in dogs with prostatic cancer.
  • Chromosomal abnormalities.
  • Overexpression of COX-2.
  • TGF - beta and PTHrP involved in bone metastasis.

Pathophysiology

  • Insidious onset - usually advanced (often metastasized) before presented.
  • Abscesses/cysts/hyperplasia may be concurrent.
  • Early dissemination to lumbar vertebrae, pelvis and bones of hindlimbs.
  • Local infiltration and regional node involvement common.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Cannon C M, Allstadt S D (2015) Lower urinary tract cancer. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 45 (4), 807-824 PubMed.
  • Axiak S M, Bigio A (2012) Canine prostatic carcinoma. Compend Contin Educ Vet 34 (10), E1-5 PubMed.
  • Dominguez P A, Dervisis N G, Cadile C D, Sarbu L, Kitchell B E (2009) Combined gemcitabine and carboplatin therapy for carcinomas in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 23 (1), 130-137 PubMed.
  • Bell F W et al (1991) Clinical and pathologic features of prostatic adenocarcinoma, in sexually active and castrated dogs - 31 cases (1970-1987). JAVMA 199 (11), 1623-30 PubMed.
  • Weaver A D (1981) Fifteen cases of prostatic carcinoma in the dog. Vet Rec 109 (4), 71-75 PubMed.


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