Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Prostate disease

Contributor(s): Autumn P Davidson

Introduction

  • Benign hypertrophy Prostate: benign hyperplasia and hypertrophy is most common prostatic disease.
  • Other diseases:
  • Signs: depends on etiology - can include: urethral discharge, pyrexia, abdominal pain, hematuria, weight loss, dysuria.
  • Treatment: castration, anti-androgens, antibiotics, surgery.
  • Prognosis: good to poor.
Follow the diagnostic tree for Penile discharge in dogs Penile discharge in dogs.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Older dogs → altered androgen/estrogen ratio → benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatic cysts (ductal occlusion or prostatic oversecretion) or bacterial prostatitis.
  • Paraprostatic cyst occasionally originates from a uterus masculinus, in which case there is no direct connection between cyst and prostate.
  • Urinary tract infection → prostatic infection.
  • Prostatic squamous metaplasia develops due to an increased [estrogen] level, eg due to Sertoli cell tumor or iatrogenic.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Intact male.
  • age.

Specific

  • Uncastrated male animal (benign prostatic hyperplasia).
  • Urinary tract infection (prostatic infection).

Pathophysiology

  • Disease → enlarged prostate → pressure on ventral rectum → partial fecal obstruction and tenesmus.
  • If disease → involves prostatic urethra → difficulty or inability to urinate, most likely associated with neoplasia.
  • Bacterial infections may → bacteremia → septic shock.
  • Malignant neoplasms (5% of prostatic disease) → metastasize to sublumbar lymph nodes or lung.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Bommer N (2006) Treatment of prostatic diseases. UK Vet 11 (4), 17-23 VetMedResource.
  • Bommer N (2006) A review of the pathophysiology of prostatic diseases. UK Vet 11 (3), 20-26 VetMedResource.


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