Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Prostate: cyst

Contributor(s): Lori Ludwig

Introduction

  • Cause: paraprostatic cysts (PPC), etiology unknown, prostatic retention cysts (PRC), concurrent prostatic disease.
  • Vary in size (milliliters to liters).
  • Signs: defecatory tenesmus, dysuria, incontinence, abdominal mass/distension, urethral blood.
  • Diagnosis: radiography and ultrasound +/- biopsy.
  • Treatment: resection, omentalization.
  • Prognosis: good unless associated with neoplasia.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Paraprostatic cysts - unknown (?congenital) only fascial attachment to prostate.
  • Prostatic retention cysts - concurrent prostatic disease, wide based intimacy of bladder neck to prostate.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Older, intact males, large breed dogs.

Specific

  • Sertoli cell tumors (endogenous estrogen) or exogenous estrogens can result in squamous metaplasia and obstruction of gland.
  • Obstruction of glands results in accumulation of prostatic secretions and formation of cysts.
  • Cysts coalesce and can become confluent to form larger cavities.
  • As cyst enlarges, compression of surrounding organs (colon, bladder) can result in clinical signs.
  • Cysts can become infected and abscessate.

Pathophysiology

  • Paraprostatic cysts: unknown - may be congenital in origin (remnant of uterus masculinus). No communication with prostate, urethra or bladder.
  • Prostatic retention cysts: obstruction of ducts within parenchyma of gland results in accumulation of prostatic secretions. Usually occurs with concurrent disease (benign prostatic hyperplasia, abscess, neoplasia, squamous metaplasia).

Timecourse

  • Months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Black G M et al (1998) Prevalence of prostatic cysts in adult, large-breed dogs. JAAHA 34 (2), 177-180 PubMed.
  • Bray J P et al (1997) Partial resection and omentalization - a new technique for management of prostatic retention cysts in dogs. Vet Surg 26 (3), 202-209 PubMed.
  • Rawlings C E et al (1997) Use of partial prostatectomy for treatment of prostatic abscesses and cysts in dogs. JAVMA 211 (7), 868-871 PubMed.
  • Closa J et al (1995) What is your diagnosis? Paraprostatic cyst in a dog. JSAP 36 (3), 114, 136 PubMed.
  • Dorfman M & Barsanti J (1995) Diseases of the canine prostate gland. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 17 (6), 791-811 VetMedResource.
  • Krawiec D R (1994) Canine prostate disease. JAVMA 204 (10), 1561-1564 PubMed.
  • Krawiec D R, Heflin D (1992) Study of prostatic disease in dogs - 177 cases (1981-1986). JAVMA 200 (8), 1119-1122 PubMed.
  • Feeney D A, Johnston G R, Walter P A (1991) Ultrasonography of the kidney and prostate gland. Has gray-scale ultrasonography replaced contrast radiography? Probl Vet Med (4), 619-646 PubMed.
  • Porter R S, Young K, Bahr R J (1984) What is your diagnosis? Hypertrophy of the prostate and calcified prostatic cyst. JAVMA 185 (7), 807-808 PubMed.


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