Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Prostate: abscessation

Contributor(s): Lori Ludwig

Introduction

  • Causes: usually ascending infection.
  • Signs: painful asymmetric enlargement, febrile, depressed, toxemic.
  • Diagnosis: clinical examination, history and ancillary testing.
  • Treatment: various drainage techniques and antibiotic therapy.
  • Prognosis: favorable if treatment is thorough and includes castration.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Usually ascending infection.
  • Prostatic abscessation occurs when bacteria colonize the prostatic parenchyma.
  • Bacteria usually ascend from the urethra (E. coli,Proteus,Staphylococci,StreptococciandPseudomonasmost common organisms involved).
  • Brucella canisor other bacteria can ascend from the testicles.
  • Hematogenous infection is possible.

Predisposing factors

General

Specific

  • Disruption of the normal prostatic parenchyma may predispose dogs to abscessation (benign prostatic hypertrophy, prostatic cysts).
  • Urethral disease, urinary tract infections and altered urine flow can inhibit the normal prostatic defense mechanisms.
  • Endogenous (sertoli cell tumors) or exogenous estrogens may predispose.

Pathophysiology

  • Frequently associated with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) Prostate: benign hyperplasia and hypertrophy.
  • Usually ascending infection of gland.
  • Normal prostatic defense mechanisms include local production of immunoglobulins, mechanical urethral flushing during urination, urethral high-pressure zone and surface characteristics of the urethral mucosa.
  • Prostatitis occurs when bacteria overcome natural defense mechanisms and colonize the prostatic parenchyma.
  • Source of bacteria usually ascending from urethra.
  • Microabscessation forms if infection not eliminated.
  • Microabscesses colonize to form large abscesses.
  • Abscesses may rupture leading to peritonitis.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Rawlings C A et al (1997) Use of partial prostatectomy for treatment of prostatic abscesses and cysts in dogs. JAVMA 211 (7), 868-871 PubMed.
  • Dorfman M & Barsanti J (1995) Diseases of the canine prostate gland. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 17 (6), 791-811 VetMedResource.
  • White R & Williams J M (1995) Intracapsular prostatic omentalization - A new technique for management of prostatic abscesses in dogs. Vet Surg 24 (5), 390-395 PubMed.
  • Drawiec D R & Heflin D (1992) Study of prostatic disease in dogs - 177 cases (1981-1986). JAVMA 200 (8), 1119-1122 PubMed.
  • Cowan L A, Barsanti J A & Crowell W et al (1991) Effects of castration on chronic bacterial prostatitis in dogs. JAVMA 199 (3), 346-350 PubMed.
  • Mullen H S, Matthiesen D T & Scavelli T D (1990) Results of surgery and post-operative complications in 92 dogs treated for prostatic abscessation by a multiple Penrose drain technique. JAAHA 26 (4), 369-379 CAB Direct.


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