Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Prolonged pro-estrus and estrus

Contributor(s): Autumn P Davidson, Carlos Pinto

Introduction

  • Relatively uncommon, any age bitch (intact).
  • Cause: (occasionally) cystic ovarian disease (COD).

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown, hypotheses include:
    • Hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian pathology.
    • Cystic ovarian disease - autogenous follicular cysts are less responsive to LH, FSH.
    • Young bitches - immature hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis → anovulation (for split heat).

Predisposing factors

General
  • Age.
  • Purebred animals.
  • Treatment with deslorelin to induce estrus Deslorelin.

Pathophysiology

  • Failure to ovulate → prolonged estrogen production leading to variable degrees of vaginal epithelial cornification (from 30% to 100% cornification).

Timecourse

  • Cystic ovarian disease: >30 days - variably receptive to male.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Arlt S P, Spankowsky S, Heuwieser W (2011) Follicular cysts and prolonged oestrus in a female dog after administration of a deslorelin implant. N Z Vet J 59 (2), 87-91 PubMed.
  • Concannon P W (2011) Reproductive cycles of the domestic bitch. Anim Reprod Sci 124 (3-4), 200-210 PubMed.
  • Löfstedt R M, Buoen L C, Weber A F et al (1992) Prolonged proestrus in a bitch with X chromosomal monosomy (77,XO). JAVMA 200 (8), 1104-1106 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Johnston S D, Root-Kustritz M V, Olson P N S (2010)Canine and Feline Theriogenology.Philadelphia,W B Saunders Co.


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