ISSN 2398-2969      

Pregnancy toxemia

icanis
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Introduction

  • Cause: altered carbohydrate metabolism in late gestation due to poor condition or anorexia in the pregnant animal. It is a rare condition in the bitch.
  • Signs: weakness, inability to stand, seizures and coma.
  • Diagnosis: ketonuria in the absence of glucose in the urine.
  • Treatment: improve nutrition (commonly protein malnourished), in severe cases termination of pregnancy.
  • Prognosis: depends on severity of condition, ranging from uneventful recovery to death of pups and possibly bitch.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Poor body condition, anorexia during late gestation, malnutrition and a large number of fetuses can lead to altered carbohydrate metabolism resulting in an increase of ketones in the blood and urine.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • England G, von Heimendahl A (2010)BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Reproduction and Neonatology.2nd edition, BSAVA.
  • Johnston, Root Kustritz and Olson (2001)Canine and Feline Theriogenology.Saunders.

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