Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Plant poisoning: solanine and related glycoalkaloids

Synonym(s): potato poisoning, nightshade poisoning

Contributor(s): Rosalind Dalefield, Patricia Talcott

Introduction

  • Plants containing solanine, solanidine and related compounds include:
    • Potato (Solanum tuberosum).
    • Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum).
    • Silverleaf nightshade (Solanum eleagnifolium).
    • Horsenettle or bullnettle (Solanum carolinense).
    • European bittersweet nightshade (Solanum dulcamara).
    • Buffalo bur (Solanum rostratum).
    • Lycopersiconspecies (tomato).
    • Physalisspecies (ground cherry).

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Solanine, solanidine and related compounds are water-soluble and heat-stable. The toxins are principally found in leaves, green berries and, in the case of potato, greened tubers.
  • Suggested toxic levels range from 0.1 to 1.0% of animals body weight, consumed as green plant. These levels can vary widely, depending on species of plant, part of the plant ingested, and stage of maturity of the plant.

Timecourse

  • Clinical course is rapid, with recovery or death within 24-38 hours.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Osweiler G D (1996) Toxicology. Williams & Wilkins.

Organisation(s)


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