ISSN 2398-2969      

Pharynx: stick injury

icanis
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Introduction

  • This condition is usually seen when a dog 'runs onto' a stick being carried in the mouth.
  • Cause: the stick impinges against the ground or another surface and the dog's weight drives the stick into the mouth and pharynx, where it penetrates/lacerates oropharyngeal tissues to varying degrees.
  • Signs: may be acute (dyspnea, retching/gagging) or subacute/chronic (abscess/foreign body).
  • Diagnosis: history, radiography, endoscopy, bacteriology, fluid/aspirate analysis.
  • Treatment: general anesthesia, removal of objects and possibly surgical exploration of the region.
  • Prognosis: excellent with prompt treatment, except when there is major trauma to the airway, but guarded in more chronic cases.
  • See also Airway abscessation Airway abscessation.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Foreign body penetration by:
    • Bone splinters.
    • Sewing needles.
    • Fish hooks.
    • Splinters from wooden sticks.

Pathophysiology

  • Foreign body damages tissues of the oral cavity, respiratory or digestive tracts or tissues of the neck region.
  • Hemorrhagic and inflammatory responses arising from direct trauma and subsequent infection.
  • Wounds can be located in:
    • Rostral pharynx: migration may → retrobulbar, temporal or masseteric regions.
    • Lateral pharynx: migration → parapharyngeal area or thoracic region.
    • Dorsal pharynx: potentially fatal when esophagus lacerated.

Timecourse

  • Acute effects: immediately after the incident.
  • Subacute/chronic effects (days to months after injury): in response to foreign body, eg pieces of wood in upper respiratory or digestive tract or in tissues of the neck region.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

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