Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Pharynx: stick injury

Contributor(s): Andrew Gardiner, Kyle Mathews

Introduction

  • This condition is usually seen when a dog 'runs onto' a stick being carried in the mouth.
  • Cause: the stick impinges against the ground or another surface and the dog's weight drives the stick into the mouth and pharynx, where it penetrates/lacerates oropharyngeal tissues to varying degrees.
  • Signs: may be acute (dyspnea, retching/gagging) or subacute/chronic (abscess/foreign body).
  • Diagnosis: history, radiography, endoscopy, bacteriology, fluid/aspirate analysis.
  • Treatment: general anesthesia, removal of objects and possibly surgical exploration of the region.
  • Prognosis: excellent with prompt treatment, except when there is major trauma to the airway, but guarded in more chronic cases.
  • See also Airway abscessation Airway abscessation.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Foreign body penetration by:
    • Bone splinters.
    • Sewing needles.
    • Fish hooks.
    • Splinters from wooden sticks.

Pathophysiology

  • Foreign body damages tissues of the oral cavity, respiratory or digestive tracts or tissues of the neck region.
  • Hemorrhagic and inflammatory responses arising from direct trauma and subsequent infection.
  • Wounds can be located in:
    • Rostral pharynx: migration may → retrobulbar, temporal or masseteric regions.
    • Lateral pharynx: migration → parapharyngeal area or thoracic region.
    • Dorsal pharynx: potentially fatal when esophagus lacerated.

Timecourse

  • Acute effects: immediately after the incident.
  • Subacute/chronic effects (days to months after injury): in response to foreign body, eg pieces of wood in upper respiratory or digestive tract or in tissues of the neck region.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers


ADDED