Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Pharyngitis / tonsillitis

Contributor(s): James Simpson

Introduction

  • Tonsilar enlargement may be due to neoplasia or inflammation.
  • Cause: primary tonsillitis more common in young, small breed dogs.
  • Secondary tonsillitis seen with upper respiratory tract disease, alimentary tract disease, mouth breathing, oral disease.
  • Signs: tonsils swollen and painful, dysphagia, retching, gagging, salivation.
  • Diagnosis: visual examination of tonsils, elimination of secondary causes.
  • Treatment: broad spectrum antibiosis, tonsillectomy if tonsils are causing pharyngeal obstruction, eg brachycephalic breeds.
  • Prognosis: good.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Bacterial infection from oral/pharyngeal cavity.
  • Chronic cough, vomiting.
  • Mouth breathing leading to lymphoid hyperplasia.
  • Viral disease as a portal of entry, eg Distemper virus.
  • Neoplasia, primary lymphoma Lymphoma or secondary netastatic disease.

Specific

  • Alimentary tract disease.
  • Chronic respiratory tract disease.
  • Mouth breathing.

Pathophysiology

  • Infection → lymphoid hyperplasia → enlargement of tonsils → possible eversion from tonsillar crypt.
  • Pharyngeal pain → dysphagia.
  • Tonsillar enlargement → pharyngeal obstruction to air flow or passage of food.
  • Acute infection → pyrexia → malaise and inappetence.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers


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