Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Perianal neoplasia

Synonym(s): Hyperplasia, adenoma, carcinoma, hepatoid gland, perianal gland tumor

Contributor(s): Laura Garrett, Antonio Guiliano

Introduction

  • Types:
    • Tumors of the peri-anal or circumanal gland.
    • Tumors of the apocrine gland of the anal sac.
    • Tumors of the apocrine glands around the anus.
  • Peri-anal gland adenoma considered to be hormonally-mediated since most regress rapidly after castration and uncommon in bitch.
  • Cause: unclear.
  • Signs: vary with the histological type.
  • Diagnosis: physical appearance, histopathology and rectal exam.
  • Treatment: surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy.
  • Prognosis: good for benign lesions, good to poor for malignant tumor, depending on type and stage.

Pathogenesis

Predisposing factors

General

  • Sexual entirety (male).

Pathophysiology

  • Gonadal hormones thought to be important, but mechanisms uncertain.

Timecourse

  • Weeks to months.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Meier V, Polton G (2016) Outcome in dogs with advanced (stage 3b) anal sac carcinoma treated with surgery or hypofractionated radiation therapy. Vet Comp Oncol 15(3), 1073-1086 PubMed.
  • London C, Mathie T, Stingle N et al (2012) Preliminary evidence for biologic activity of toceranib phosphate (Palladia®) in solid tumors. Vet Comp Oncol 10, 194-205 PubMed.
  • Spugnini E P, Dotsinsky I, Mudrov N, Cardosi G, Citro G, D'Avino A, Baldi A (2007) Biphasic pulses enhance bleomycin efficacy in a spontaneous canine perianal tumors model. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 26, 483-487 PubMed.
  • Polton G A & Brearley M J (2007) Clinical stage, therapy, and prognosis in canine anal sac gland carcinoma. J Vet Int Med 21, 274-280 PubMed.
  • Tozon N, Kodre V, Sersa G, Cemazar M (2005) Effective treatment of perianal tumors in dogs with electrochemotherapy. Anticancer Res 25, 839-845 PubMed.
  • Ross J T, Scavelli T D et al (1991) Adenocarcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac in dogs - a review of 32 cases. JAAHA 27 (3), 349-355.
  • Vail D M, Withrow S J et al (1990) Perianal adenocarcinoma in the canine male - a retrospective study of 41 cases. JAAHA 26 (3), 329-334 VetMedResource.
  • Dow S W, Olson P N et al (1988) Perianal adenomas and hypertestosteronemia in a spayed bitch with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. JAVMA 192 (10), 1439-1441 PubMed.


ADDED