Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Pelvic bladder

Contributor(s): Kyle Mathews, Richard Walker

Introduction

  • Cause: embryological anomaly.
  • Signs: urinary incontinence.
  • Diagnosis: radiography.
  • Treatment: medical management or surgical correction.
  • Prognosis: guarded for full resolution of signs.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Embryological anomaly.
  • Cause unknown.
Pathophysiology
  • Anatomy established as neonate but signs may not become evident until adult life.
  • Bladder remains at pelvic level instead of migrating cranially into abdomen.
  • 'Pear-shaped' bladder with rounded urethral vesical junction.
  • Bladder neck is within the pelvic canal.

Pathophysiology

  • A component of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in many incontinent bitches.
  • Bladder remains at pelvic level instead of migrating cranially into abdomen.
  • Effect on sphincter mechanism is not known.

Timecourse

  • Months to years.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Scott L, Leddy M, Bernay F and Davot J L (2002) Evaluation of phenylpropanolamine in the treatment of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in the bitch. JSAP 43 (11), 493-496 PubMed.
  • Power S C, Eggleton K E, Aaron A J, Holt P E & Crupps P J (1998) Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in the male dog - importance of bladder neck position, proximal urethral lengh and castration. JSAP 39 (2), 69-72 PubMed.
  • Gregory S P, Parkinson T J & Holt P E (1992) Urethral conformation and position in relation to urinary incontinence in the bitch. Vet Rec 131 (8), 167-170 PubMed.
  • Holt P E (1985) Importance of urethral length, bladder neck position and vestibulovaginal stenosis in sphincter mechanism incompetence in the incontinent bitch. Res Vet Sci 39 (3), 364-372 PubMed.
  • Mahaffey M B, Barsanti J A, Barber D L & Crowell W A (1984) Pelvic bladder in dogs without incontinence. JAVMA 184 (12), 1477-1479 PubMed.


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