Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Parvovirus disease associated with CPV-1

Synonym(s): Minute Virus of Canines (MVC)

Contributor(s): Bryn Tennant

Introduction

  • Highly resistant virus first recognized in 1971.
  • CPV-1 targets rapidly dividing cells, eg intestinal crypt epithelial cells, fetal tissues.
  • Signs: fetal death and resorption in bitches. Fading puppies, diarrhea, tachpnea/dyspnea in puppies up to 6 weeks old.
  • Diagnosis: serology, virus isolation, immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy.
  • Treatment: symptomatic.
  • Prognosis: guarded.
  • Prevention: none.
    Print out owner factsheet entitled Parvovirus disease in your dog Parvovirus disease in your dog to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Pathophysiology

  • When CPV-1 was first recognized in 1971 it was considered to be non-pathogenic. Since 1985, it has been associated with fetal death, fading puppies, gastrointestinal disease, and respiratory disease in puppies <6 weeks old.
  • The pathogenesis is not fully understood. It is most probable that the virus gains entry through the oral cavity. It localizes in the bronchial, bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells resulting in bronchitis and interstitial pneumonia, in fetal tissues causing fetal death/abnormalities and intestinal epithelium causing enteritis.

Timecourse

  • Incubation period: not known, probably days.

Epidemiology

  • Transmitted by fecal shedding from infected dog and oral entry.
  • Inapparent infection common in dogs >6 weeks old.
  • Fecal contamination of environment usual route for infection.
  • Parvoviruses are highly resistant, therefore fomites also important in transmission of infection.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Truyen U et al (1996) The "other" parvovirus: first description of the minute virus of canines (Canine parvovirus type 1) in Germany. Tierarztl Prax 24 (5), 511-513 PubMed.
  • Carmichael L E et al (1994) Minute virus of canines (MVC, canine parvovirus type-1): pathogenicity for pups and seroprevalence estimate. J Vet Diagn Invest (2), 165-174 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Hoskins (2000) Neonatal diarrhea in puppies and kittens. In: Kirk's Current Veterinary Therapy XIII.


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