Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Papilledema

Contributor(s): Paul Gerding, David Gould, David L Williams

Introduction

  • Non-inflammatory swelling of optic nerve head Papilledema West Highland White 7 years.
  • Cause:
    • Usually associated with space occupying CNS lesion especially in region of optic chiasm, eg pituitary tumors, or other CNS tumors leading to increased intracranial pressure.
    • May also be associated with other causes of increased intracranial pressure, eg hydrocephalus.
    • May be associated with orbital space-occupying lesions that impinge on optic nerve.
    • Occasionally seen with severe ocular hypotomy, eg following globe rupture.
  • Signs: pupillary light responses and vision usually normal with papilledema (this is the key feature differentiating papilledema from optic neuritis). However, if papilledema is secondary to a tumor directly affecting the optic chiasm then blindness and reduced pupillary light responses may be present.
  • Electroretinogram normal.
  • Prognosis:
    • If untreated primary lesion → optic atrophy → blindness.
    • Underlying cause determines prognosis for animal.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Associated with space-occupying masses of orbit or optic nerve, ocular hypotony or increased CSF pressure.

Pathophysiology

  • Results from a stasis of axoplasmic flow at the lamina cribosa of the optic nerve head.
  • Edema of the optic nerve head occurs as a result of swelling of the axons in the prelaminar region.

Timecourse

  • Weeks to months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Palmer A C, Malinowski W & Barnett K C (1974) Clinical signs including papilloedema associated with brain tumors in twenty one dogs. JSAP 15 (6), 359-83 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Brooks D E (2007)diseases of the canine optic nerve.In:Veterinary Ophthalmology. 4th edn. Ed: Gelatt K N, Blackwell Publishing, Iowa, USA. pp 1059-1092.


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