Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Pancreas: neoplasia: gastrinoma

Synonym(s): Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

Contributor(s): Andrew Gardiner, James Simpson

Introduction

  • Rare. No predilection to age or breed evident.
  • Cause: functional malignant tumor of pancreatic islet cells that secretes gastrin.
  • Signs: attributable to gastrin produced by tumor (hypergastrinemia) causing esophageal, gastric and duodenal ulceration leading to vomiting and diarrhea.
  • Diagnosis: laparotomy and histopathology.
  • Treatment: surgical excision + H2 blockers.
  • Prognosis: poor >76% metastasize.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown.

Pathophysiology

  • Malignant tumor of islet cells secreting gastrin.
  • Gastrin stimulates excessive gastric hydrochloric acid secretion causing gastrointestinal ulceration, diarrhea and steatorrhea.
  • Gastrin → gastric hydrochloric acid → erosive gastritis/duodenitis → ulceration/hyperplasia → vomiting/hematemesis/melena/abdominal pain.
  • Excessive gastrointestinal acid → fat malabsorption → steatorrhea/diarrhea.
  • High malignancy → metastasis to liver and regional lymph nodes.

Timecourse

  • Early metastasis.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Green R A & Gartrell C L (1997) Gastrinoma - a retrospective study of four cases (1985-1995). JAAHA 33 (6), 524-527 PubMed.
  • Happ√© et al (1980) Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in three dogs. Vet Pathol 17 (2), 177-186 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Zerbe C A & Washabau R J (1995) Gastrointestinal endocrine disease. In:Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine.4th edn. Eds S J Ettinger and E C Feldman. Philadelphia: Saunders.


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