ISSN 2398-2969      

Ovary: neoplasia

icanis
Contributor(s):

Laura Garrett


Introduction

  • 0.1% of all canine neoplasms.
  • Cause: histopathological types: epithelial (adenoma, adenocarcinoma 40-50%), sex-cord stromal (granulosa cell thecoma: 50% of ovarian tumors), germ cell (dysgerminoma teratoma: 6-20%), metastatic.
  • Signs: variable.
  • Diagnosis: radiography, ultrasound, biopsy.
  • Treatment: ovariohysterectomy (OHE).
  • Prognosis: depends on type and early treatment.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Primary tumors:
    • Epithelial (adenocarcinoma).
    • Granulosa cell tumor.
    • Dysgerminoma.
    • Teratoma.
  • Metastatic tumor:
    • Very rare.
    • Mammary adenocarcinoma.
    • Lymphosarcoma Lymphoma.

Pathophysiology


Epithelial - cystadenoma/cystadenocarcinoma
  • Usually arise from surface epithelium.
  • May rarely secrete hormones → cystic endometrial hyperplasia or metritis.
  • Cysts may rupture and disseminate neoplastic cells around peritoneum → ascites/hemoperitoneum.
  • Adenocarcinomas metastasize by local implantation (rarely via blood or lymphatics).
Gonadal/sex-cord stromal tumor - granulosa cell tumor
  • Equivalent to testicular Sertoli cell tumors in male.
  • May be estrogenic/androgenic → irregular or absent estrus cycles, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, pyometra, ovarian enlargement; alopecia, mammary tissue hyperplasia.
  • Peritoneal dissemination - metastasize to lungs, lymph nodes, liver, etc.
Germ cell tumor - dysgerminoma
  • Arises from undifferentiated germinal epithelium.
  • Resemble testicular seminomas.
  • Occasionally estrogenic/progesterogenic.
Germ cell tumor - teratoma
  • Derived from multipotential cells.
Metastatic tumors
  • Usually arise from primary tumors within abdomen.

Timecourse

  • May be present for months → years prior to diagnosis.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Pluhar G E, Memon M A & Wheaton L G (1995) Granulosa cell tumor in an ovariohysterectomized dog. JAVMA 207 (8), 1063-5 PubMed.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!