Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Ovary: neoplasia

Contributor(s): Laura Garrett

Introduction

  • 0.1% of all canine neoplasms.
  • Cause: histopathological types: epithelial (adenoma, adenocarcinoma 40-50%), sex-cord stromal (granulosa cell thecoma: 50% of ovarian tumors), germ cell (dysgerminoma teratoma: 6-20%), metastatic.
  • Signs: variable.
  • Diagnosis: radiography, ultrasound, biopsy.
  • Treatment: ovariohysterectomy (OHE).
  • Prognosis: depends on type and early treatment.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Primary tumors:
    • Epithelial (adenocarcinoma).
    • Granulosa cell tumor.
    • Dysgerminoma.
    • Teratoma.
  • Metastatic tumor:
    • Very rare.
    • Mammary adenocarcinoma.
    • Lymphosarcoma Lymphoma.

Pathophysiology


Epithelial - cystadenoma/cystadenocarcinoma
  • Usually arise from surface epithelium.
  • May rarely secrete hormones → cystic endometrial hyperplasia or metritis.
  • Cysts may rupture and disseminate neoplastic cells around peritoneum → ascites/hemoperitoneum.
  • Adenocarcinomas metastasize by local implantation (rarely via blood or lymphatics).
Gonadal/sex-cord stromal tumor - granulosa cell tumor
  • Equivalent to testicular Sertoli cell tumors in male.
  • May be estrogenic/androgenic → irregular or absent estrus cycles, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, pyometra, ovarian enlargement; alopecia, mammary tissue hyperplasia.
  • Peritoneal dissemination - metastasize to lungs, lymph nodes, liver, etc.
Germ cell tumor - dysgerminoma
  • Arises from undifferentiated germinal epithelium.
  • Resemble testicular seminomas.
  • Occasionally estrogenic/progesterogenic.
Germ cell tumor - teratoma
  • Derived from multipotential cells.
Metastatic tumors
  • Usually arise from primary tumors within abdomen.

Timecourse

  • May be present for months → years prior to diagnosis.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Pluhar G E, Memon M A & Wheaton L G (1995) Granulosa cell tumor in an ovariohysterectomized dog. JAVMA 207 (8), 1063-5 PubMed.


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